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2016 Vol. 13, No. 5
Published: 20 May 2016

CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING
NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION
SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS
ICT MANAGEMENT
PROTOCOLS AND ALGORITHMS
REVIEW PAPER
FEATURE TOPIC: AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING
 
   
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       FEATURE TOPIC: AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING

Semantic Region Estimation of Assistant Robot for the Elderly Long-Term Operation in Indoor Environment

Guanglei Huo, Lijun Zhao, Ke Wang, Ruifeng Li
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 1-10
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In this work, in order to improve spatial recognition abilities for the long-term operation tasks of the assistant robot for the elderly, a novel approach of semantic region estimation is proposed. We define a novel graph-based semantic region descriptions, which are estimated in a dynamically fashion. We propose a two-level update algorithm, namely, Symbols update level and Regions update level. The algorithm firstly adopts particle filter to update weights of the symbols, and then use the Viterbi algorithm to estimate the region the robot stays in based on those weights, optimally. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach can solve problems of the long-term operation and kidnapped robot problem.
       FEATURE TOPIC: AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING

A Measure System of Zero Moment Point Using Wearable Inertial Sensors

Xianggang Zhang, Hao Wang , Yuliang Shi , Changjun Fu , Huiqin Wang , Guoyu Wang
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 16-27
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Keeping balance is the premise of human walking. ZMP(zero moment point) is a point where total torque achieves balance. It is an important evaluation parameter of balance ability in walking, since it can be used to better reflect the dynamic balance during walking. ZMP can be used in many applications, such as medical rehabilitation, disease diagnosis, treatment and etc. In this paper, wearable inertial sensors system based on MEMS is used to measure ZMP (zero moment point) during walking, which is cheap, convenient, and free from the restriction of lab. Our wearable ZMP measurement system consists of inertial measurement subsystem and PC real-time monitoring station. Inertial measurement subsystem includes 9-axis inertial sensing nodes, the body communication network and the central node. Inertial sensing nodes are mounted on different parts of the body to collect body posture information in real-time, and then the best estimation of current posture are obtained by Kalman filter. The data from sensors is aggregated to the central node through the CAN bus, and then ZMP is calculated. Finally, it can be showed in the PC monitoring station. Experiments prove the system can achieve real-time ZMP detection during walking.
       FEATURE TOPIC: AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING

Precise Transceiver-Free Localization in Complex Indoor Environment

Rui Mao, Peng Xiang, Dian Zhang
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 28-37
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Transceiver-free object localization can localize target through using Radio Frequency (RF) technologies without carrying any device, which attracts many researchers’ attentions. Most traditional technologies usually first deploy a number of reference nodes which are able to communicate with each other, then select only some wireless links, whose signals are affected the most by the transceiver-free target, to estimate the target position. However, such traditional technologies adopt an ideal model for the target, the other link information and environment interference behavior are not considered comprehensively. In order to overcome this drawback, we propose a method which is able to precisely estimate the transceiver-free target position. It not only can leverage more link information, but also take environmental interference into account. Two algorithms are proposed in our system, one is Best K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm, the other is Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithm. Our experiments are based on TelosB sensor nodes and performed in different complex lab areas which have many different furniture and equipment. The experiment results show that the average localization error is round 1.1m. Compared with traditional methods, the localization accuracy is increased nearly two times.
       FEATURE TOPIC: AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING

DS-MMAC: A Delay-Sensitive Multi-Channel MAC Protocol for Ambient Assistant Living Systems

Haiming Chen, Li Cui
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 38-46
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In Ambient Assistant Living (AAL) systems, it is a fundamental problem to ensure prompt delivery of detected events, such as irregular heart rate or fall of elderly, to a central processing device (e.g. gateway node). Most of recently proposed MAC protocols for low-power embedded sensing systems (e.g. wireless sensor networks) are designed with energy efficiency as the first goal, so they are not suitable for AAL systems. Although some multi-channel MAC protocols have been proposed to address the problem, most of those protocols ignore the cost of channel switching, which can have reverse effect on network performance, especially latency of data delivery. In this paper, we propose a Delay-Sensitive Multi-channel MAC protocol (DS-MMAC) for AAL systems, which can provide high packet delivery ratio and bound low latency for data delivered to the gateway node. The novelty of the protocol is that an efficient distributed time slot scheduling and channel assignment algorithm is combined with the process of route establishment, which takes the channel switching cost into account and reduces end-to-end delay to meet the required delay bound of each data flow. The performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated through extensive simulations. Results show that DS-MMAC can bound low latency for delivering detected events in AAL system to the gateway, while providing high delivery reliability and low energy consumption.
       FEATURE TOPIC: AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING

A Coverage-Aware Unequal Clustering Protocol with Load Separation for Ambient Assisted Living Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

Xiaoying Song *, Tao Wen , , Wei Sun , Dongqing Zhang , , Quan Guo , Qilong Zhang
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 47-55
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Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is becoming an important research field. Many technologies have emerged related with pervasive computing vision, which can give support for AAL. One of the most reliable approaches is based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we propose a coverage-aware unequal clustering protocol with load separation (CUCPLS) for data gathering of AAL applications based on WSNs. Firstly, the coverage overlap factor for nodes is introduced that accounts for the degree of target nodes covered. In addition, to balance the intra-cluster and inter-cluster energy consumptions, different competition radiuses of CHs are computed theoretically in different rings, and smaller clusters are formed near the sink. Moreover, two CHs are selected in each cluster for load separation to alleviate the substantial energy consumption difference between a single CH and its member nodes. Furthermore, a back-off waiting time is adopted during the selection of the two CHs to reduce the number of control messages employed. Simulation results demonstrate that the CUCPLS not only can achieve better coverage performance, but also balance the energy consumption of a network and prolong network lifetime.
       FEATURE TOPIC: AMBIENT ASSISTED LIVING

Heuristic Virtual Machine Allocation for Multi-Tier Ambient Assisted Living Applications in a Cloud Data Center

Jing Bi , , Haitao Yuan *, Ming Tie , , Xiao Song
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 56-65
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Cloud computing provides the essential infrastructure for multi-tier Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications that facilitate people’s lives. Resource provisioning is a critically important problem for AAL applications in cloud data centers (CDCs). This paper focuses on modeling and analysis of multi-tier AAL applications, and aims to optimize resource provisioning while meeting requests’ response time constraint. This paper models a multi-tier AAL application as a hybrid multi-tier queueing model consisting of an M/M/c queueing model and multiple M/M/1 queueing models. Then, virtual machine (VM) allocation is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in a CDC, and is further solved with the proposed heuristic VM allocation algorithm (HVMA). The results demonstrate that the proposed model and algorithm can effectively achieve dynamic resource provisioning while meeting the performance constraint.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Generalized 3D Scattering Channel Model with MIMO Antenna Systems

Jie Zhou, *, Hao Jiang , Hisakazu Kikuchi
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 66-81
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In this paper, a generalized three-dimensional (3D) scattering channel model for macrocellular land mobile environments is considered. This model simultaneously describes angular arrival of multi-path signals in the azimuth and elevation planes in an environment where uniformly distributed scatterers are assumed to be present in hemispheroids around the base station (BS) and mobile station (MS). Using this channel model, we first derive the closed-form expression for the joint and marginal probability density functions of the angle-of-arrival and time-of-arrival measured at the BS and the MS corresponding to the azimuth and elevation angles. Next, we derive an expression for the Doppler spectral distribution caused by motion of the MSs. Furthermore, we analyze the performance of multiple-input multiple-output antenna systems numerically. The results show that the proposed 3D scattering channel model performs better than previously proposed two-dimensional (2D) models for indoor and outdoor environments. We compare the results with previous scattering channel models and measurement results to validate the generalizability of our model.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

The Analysis of Secure HARQ with Chase Combining over Block Fading Channel

Yue Wu, Lukman A Olawoyin, Nana Zhang, Hongwen Yang
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 82-88
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In this letter, the physical layer security of hybrid automatic repeat request with chase combining (HARQ-CC) scheme is investigated from the viewpoint of information theory. Different from the literature which used Wyner code, our analysis focuses on the general scenario without specific code. We firstly obtain the outage probability of both main channel and wiretap channel. Since retransmissions are completely determined by main channel, we then prove that its achievable diversity order equals to maximum transmission number (K) while this order of wiretap channel is only one. Furthermore, we evaluate the metric of secure gap which demonstrates the difference between main channel and wiretap channel with reliable and secure constraints. As Kincreases, the secure gap decreases monotonously. When K is large enough, the security can be guaranteed even if wiretap channel is better than main channel.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

Modeling and Analyzing Web Application with Aspect-Oriented Hierarchical Coloured Petri Nets

Xiaoxing Sun ,, Huiqun Yu *, Honghao Liang , Nianhua Yang
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 89-102
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Aspect-oriented modeling can uncover potential design faults, yet most existing work fails to achieve both separation and composition in a natural and succinct way. This study presents an aspect-oriented modeling and analysis approach with hierarchical Coloured Petri Nets (HCPN). HCPN has sub-models and well-defined semantics combining a set of submodels. These two characteristics of HCPN are nicely integrated into aspect oriented modeling. Submodels are used to model aspects while the combination mechanism contributes to aspects weaving. Furthermore, the woven aspect oriented HCPN model can be simulated and analyzed by the CPN Tools. A systematic web application case study is conducted. The results show the system original properties are satisfied after weaving aspects and all design flaws are revealed. As such, the approach can support web application design and analysis in an aspect-oriented fashion concisely and effectively.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

A Game-Theoretic Approach to Elastic Control in Software-Defined Networking

Hongchang Chen, Guozhen Cheng*, Zhiming Wang
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 103-109
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Elastic control could balance the distributed control plane in Software-Defined Networking (SDN). Dynamic switch migration has been proposed to achieve it. However, existing schemes mainly focus on how to execute migration operation, but not why. This paper designs a decision-making mechanism based on zero-sum game theory to reelect a new controller as the master for migrated switches. It first chooses a switch for migration in the heavy controller which invites its neighbors as the game players to compete for the master role of this switch in the game-playing field (GPF) which is an occasional and loose domain for game-playing. Second, based on the concept of GPF, we design a decentralized strategy to play the game and determine which player as the final master. We implement it by extending the OpenFlow protocol. Finally, numerical results demonstrate that our distributed strategy can approach elastic control plane with better performance.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

Transceiver Optimization for Multi-Antenna Device-to-Device Communications

Daohua Zhu , Yajuan Guo , Lei Wei , Chaoyang Zhu , Biyao Huang , Wei Xu , Chunming Zhao
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 110-121
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It has been shown that the deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communication in cellular systems can provide better support for local services. However, improper design of the hybrid system may cause severe interference between cellular and D2D links. In this paper, we consider transceiver design for the system employing multiple antennas to mitigate the interference. The precoder and decoder matrices are optimized in terms of sum mean squared error (MSE) and capacity, respectively. For the MSE minimization problem, we present an alternative transceiver optimization algorithm. While for the non-convex capacity maximization problem, we decompose the primal problem into a sequence of standard convex quadratic programs for efficient optimization. The evaluation of our proposed algorithms for performance enhancement of the entire D2D integrated cellular system is carried out through simulations.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

The Innovation and Development of Internet of Vehicles

Weiwei Zhang, Xiaoqiang Xi
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 122-127
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With the advancements in wireless sensor networks, Internet of Vehicles (IOV) has shown great potential in aiding to ease traffic congestion. In IOV, vehicles can easily exchange information with other vehicles and infrastructures, thus, the development of IOV will greatly improve vehicles safety, promote green information consumption and have a profound impact on many industries. The purpose of this paper is to promote the innovation and development of IOV. Firstly, this paper presents general requirements of IOV such as guidelines, basic principles, and the goal of development. Secondly, we analyze critical applications, crucial support, and business model to promote the industrial development of IOV. Finally, this paper proposes some safeguard measures to further promote the development of IOV.
       PROTOCOLS AND ALGORITHMS

Implementation and Evaluation of Dynamically Weighted Low Complexity Fair Queuing (DWLC-FQ) Algorithm for Packet Scheduling in WiMAX Networks

Zuber Patel, Upena Dalal
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 128-140
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Services provided by internet need guaranteed network performance. Efficient packet queuing and scheduling schemes play key role in achieving this. Internet engineering task force (IETF) has proposed Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture for IP network which is based on classifying packets in to different service classes and scheduling them. Scheduling schemes of today’s wireless broadband networks work on service differentiation. In this paper, we present a novel packet queue scheduling algorithm called dynamically weighted low complexity fair queuing (DWLC-FQ) which is an improvement over weighted fair queuing (WFQ) and worst-case fair weighted fair queuing+ (WF2Q+). The proposed algorithm incorporates dynamic weight adjustment mechanism to cope with dynamics of data traffic such as burst and overload. It also reduces complexity associated with virtual time update and hence makes it suitable for high speed networks. Simulation results of proposed packet scheduling scheme demonstrate improvement in delay and drop rate performance for constant bit rate and video applications with very little or negligible impact on fairness.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Fast Multi-Pattern Matching Algorithm on Compressed Network Traffic

Hao Peng, Jianxin Li, Bo Li, M. Hassan Arif
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 141-150
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Abstracts: Pattern matching is a fundamental approach to detect malicious behaviors and information over Internet, which has been gradually used in high-speed network traffic analysis. However, there is a performance bottleneck for multi-pattern matching on online compressed network traffic(CNT), this is because malicious and intrusion codes are often embedded into compressed network traffic. In this paper, we propose an online fast and multi-pattern matching algorithm on compressed network traffic (FMMCN). FMMCN employs two types of jumping, i.e. jumping during sliding window and a string jump scanning strategy to skip unnecessary compressed bytes. Moreover, FMMCN has the ability to efficiently process multiple large volume of networks such as HTTP traffic, vehicles traffic, and other Internet-based services. The experimental results show that FMMCN can ignore more than 89.5% of bytes, and its maximum speed reaches 176.470MB/s in a mid-range switches device, which is faster than the current fastest algorithm ACCH by almost 73.15 MB/s.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

System Recovery-Aware Virus Propagation Model and Its Steady-State Analysis

Lin Sun, Cai Fu*, Ming Fu, Deliang Xu, Lansheng Han, Deqing Zou
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 151-161
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Network structures and human behaviors are considered as two important factors in virus defense currently. However, due to ignorance of network security, normal users usually take simple activities, such as reinstalling computer system, or using the computer recovery system to clear virus. How system recovery influences virus spreading is not taken into consideration currently. In this paper, a new virus propagation model considering the system recovery is proposed first, and then in its steady-state analysis, the virus propagation steady time and steady states are deduced. Experiment results show that models considering system recovery can effectively restrain virus propagation. Furthermore, algorithm with system recovery in BA scale-free network is proposed. Simulation result turns out that target immunization strategy with system recovery works better than traditional ones in BA network.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

A Multi-Level Authorization Based Tenant Separation Mechanism in Cloud Computing Environment

Wei Ma,, Zhen Han, Xiaoyong Li, Jiqiang Liu
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 162-171
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Separation issue is one of the most important problems about cloud computing security. Tenants should be separated from each other based on cloud infrastructure and different users from one tenant should be separated from each other with the constraint of security policies. Learning from the notion of trusted cloud computing and trustworthiness in cloud, in this paper, a multi-level authorization separation model is formally described, and a series of rules are proposed to summarize the separation property of this model. The correctness of the rules is proved. Furthermore, based on this model, a tenant separation mechanism is deployed in a real world mixed-critical information system. Performance benchmarks have shown the availability and efficiency of this mechanism.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

A Website Security Risk Assessment Method Based on the I-BAG Model

Lin Liu ,, Liang Liu , Cheng Huang ,, Zhao Zhang , Yong Fang
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 172-181
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In order to protect the website and assess the security risk of website, a novel website security risk assessment method is proposed based on the improved Bayesian attack graph (I-BAG) model. First, the Improved Bayesian attack graph model is established, which takes attack benefits and threat factors into consideration. Compared with the existing attack graph models, it can better describe the website’s security risk. Then, the improved Bayesian attack graph is constructed with optimized website attack graph, attack benefit nodes, threat factor nodes and the local conditional probability distribution of each node, which is calculated accordingly. Finally, website’s attack probability and risk value are calculated on the level of nodes, hosts and the whole website separately. The experimental results demonstrate that the risk evaluating method based on I-BAG model proposed is a effective way for assessing the website security risk.
       ICT MANAGEMENT

Study on the Diffusion Performance of Standard E-Government Information Systems

Jing Fan , Li Gao , Jinping Gao
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 182-202
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Standard e-government information system (SEIS) including mobile-government applications are playing more and more important roles in the establishing of national e-government framework. It can be beneficial not only for avoiding redundant e-government IS development but also for improving collaboration among government agencies. Two research questions were explored: what are the factors influencing the performance of SEIS? Will mandatory SEIS create a better performance than non-mandatory SEIS? Specifically, the use of five categories of IS aspects--information system quality, online service quality, offline service quality, diffusion modes and standard network size—is proposed to understand the performance of SEIS through applying both survey study and simulation study. The results show that information system quality and online service quality of SEIS have strong effects on users’ expectation and users’ satisfaction, which thereafter promotes the performance of SEIS. Government agencies’ offline service quality shows a significant effect on users’ satisfaction while not on users’ expectation. Furthermore, the diffusion speed of SEIS in non-mandatory and mandatory modes and the standard network size also have great influence on the utility of SEIS.
       REVIEW PAPER

An Overview of Smart City in China

Minjie Guo , Yiheng Liu , Haibin Yu , Binyu Hu , Ziqin Sang
China Communications, 2016, 13(5): 203-211
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The year of 2013 is considered the first year of smart city in China. With the development of informationization and urbanization in China, city diseases (traffic jam, medical problem and unbalanced education) are more and more apparent. Smart city is the key to solving these diseases. This paper presents the overall smart city development in China in term of market scale and development stages, the technology standards, and industry layout. The paper claims that the issues and challenges facing smart city development in China and proposes to make polices to support smart city development.
 
 
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