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Resilient Satellite Communication Networks towards Highly Dynamic and Highly Reliable Transmission, No. 2, 2024
Editor: Lidong Zhu
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  • FEATURE TOPIC: RESILIENT SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS TOWARDS HIGHLY DYNAMIC AND HIGHLY RELIABLE TRANSMISSION
    Haoran Xie, Yafeng Zhan, Jianhua Lu
    China Communications. 2024, 21(2): 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/JCC.fa.2023-0313.202402

    With the development of the transportation industry, the effective guidance of aircraft in an emergency to prevent catastrophic accidents remains one of the top safety concerns. Undoubtedly, operational status data of the aircraft play an important role in the judgment and command of the Operational Control Center (OCC). However, how to transmit various operational status data from abnormal aircraft back to the OCC in an emergency is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Telemetry, Tracking, and Command (TT&C) architecture named Collaborative TT&C (CoTT&C) based on mega-constellation to solve such a problem. CoTT&C allows each satellite to help the abnormal aircraft by sharing TT&C resources when needed, realizing real-time and reliable aeronautical communication in an emergency. Specifically, we design a dynamic resource sharing mechanism for CoTT&C and model the mechanism as a single-leader-multi-follower Stackelberg game. Further, we give an unique Nash Equilibrium (NE) of the game as a closed form. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed resource sharing mechanism is effective, incentive compatible, fair, and reciprocal. We hope that our findings can shed some light for future research on aeronautical communications in an emergency.

  • FEATURE TOPIC: RESILIENT SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS TOWARDS HIGHLY DYNAMIC AND HIGHLY RELIABLE TRANSMISSION
    Shaojing Wang, Xiaomei Tang, Jing Lei, Chunjiang Ma, Chao Wen, Guangfu Sun
    China Communications. 2024, 21(2): 17-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/JCC.fa.2023-0229.202402

    Orthogonal Time Frequency and Space (OTFS) modulation is expected to provide high-speed and ultra-reliable communications for emerging mobile applications, including low-orbit satellite communications. Using the Doppler frequency for positioning is a promising research direction on communication and navigation integration. To tackle the high Doppler frequency and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in satellite communication, this paper proposes a Red and Blue Frequency Shift Discriminator (RBFSD) based on the pseudo-noise (PN) sequence. The paper derives that the cross-correlation function on the Doppler domain exhibits the characteristic of a Sinc function. Therefore, it applies modulation onto the Delay-Doppler domain using PN sequence and adjusts Doppler frequency estimation by red-shifting or blue-shifting. Simulation results show that the performance of Doppler frequency estimation is close to the Cramér-Rao Lower Bound when the SNR is greater than -15dB. The proposed algorithm is about $1/D$ times less complex than the existing PN pilot sequence algorithm, where $D$ is the resolution of the fractional Doppler.

  • FEATURE TOPIC: RESILIENT SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS TOWARDS HIGHLY DYNAMIC AND HIGHLY RELIABLE TRANSMISSION
    Chengjie Li, Lidong Zhu, Zhen Zhang
    China Communications. 2024, 21(2): 85-95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/JCC.fa.2023-0371.202402

    In LEO satellite communication networks, the number of satellites has increased sharply, the relative velocity of satellites is very fast, then electronic signal aliasing occurs from time to time. Those aliasing signals make the receiving ability of the signal receiver worse, the signal processing ability weaker, and the anti-interference ability of the communication system lower. Aiming at the above problems, to save communication resources and improve communication efficiency, and considering the irregularity of interference signals, the underdetermined blind separation technology can effectively deal with the problem of interference sensing and signal reconstruction in this scenario. In order to improve the stability of source signal separation and the security of information transmission, a greedy optimization algorithm can be executed. At the same time, to improve network information transmission efficiency and prevent algorithms from getting trapped in local optima, delete low-energy points during each iteration process. Ultimately, simulation experiments validate that the algorithm presented in this paper enhances both the transmission efficiency of the network transmission system and the security of the communication system, achieving the process of interference sensing and signal reconstruction in the LEO satellite communication system.

  • FEATURE TOPIC: RESILIENT SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS TOWARDS HIGHLY DYNAMIC AND HIGHLY RELIABLE TRANSMISSION
    Qingmiao Zhang, Lidong Zhu, Yanyan Chen, Shan Jiang
    China Communications. 2024, 21(2): 49-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/JCC.fa.2023-0454.202402

    As the demands of massive connections and vast coverage rapidly grow in the next wireless communication networks, rate splitting multiple access (RSMA) is considered to be the new promising access scheme since it can provide higher efficiency with limited spectrum resources. In this paper, combining spectrum splitting with rate splitting, we propose to allocate resources with traffic offloading in hybrid satellite terrestrial networks. A novel deep reinforcement learning method is adopted to solve this challenging non-convex problem. However, the never-ending learning process could prohibit its practical implementation. Therefore, we introduce the switch mechanism to avoid unnecessary learning. Additionally, the QoS constraint in the scheme can rule out unsuccessful transmission. The simulation results validates the energy efficiency performance and the convergence speed of the proposed algorithm.

  • FEATURE TOPIC: RESILIENT SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS TOWARDS HIGHLY DYNAMIC AND HIGHLY RELIABLE TRANSMISSION
    Ning Yang, Heng Wang, Jingming Hu, Bangning Zhang, Daoxing Guo, Yuan Liu
    China Communications. 2024, 21(2): 32-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/JCC.fa.2023-0424.202402

    In this paper, the problem of abnormal spectrum usage between satellite spectrum sharing systems is investigated to support multi-satellite spectrum coexistence. Given the cost of monitoring, the mobility of low-orbit satellites, and the directional nature of their signals, traditional monitoring methods are no longer suitable, especially in the case of multiple power level. Mobile crowdsensing (MCS), as a new technology, can make full use of idle resources to complete a variety of perceptual tasks. However, traditional MCS heavily relies on a centralized server and is vulnerable to single point of failure attacks. Therefore, we replace the original centralized server with a blockchain-based distributed service provider to enable its security. Therefore, in this work, we propose a blockchain-based MCS framework, in which we explain in detail how this framework can achieve abnormal frequency behavior monitoring in an inter-satellite spectrum sharing system. Then, under certain false alarm probability, we propose an abnormal spectrum detection algorithm based on mixed hypothesis test to maximize detection probability in single power level and multiple power level scenarios, respectively. Finally, a Bad out of Good (BooG) detector is proposed to ease the computational pressure on the blockchain nodes. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  • FEATURE TOPIC: RESILIENT SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS TOWARDS HIGHLY DYNAMIC AND HIGHLY RELIABLE TRANSMISSION
    Zhen Zhang, Bing Guo, Chengjie Li
    China Communications. 2024, 21(2): 59-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/JCC.fa.2023-0404.202402

    In mega-constellation Communication Systems, efficient routing algorithms and data transmission technologies are employed to ensure fast and reliable data transfer. However, the limited computational resources of satellites necessitate the use of edge computing to enhance secure communication. While edge computing reduces the burden on cloud computing, it introduces security and reliability challenges in open satellite communication channels. To address these challenges, we propose a blockchain architecture specifically designed for edge computing in mega-constellation communication systems. This architecture narrows down the consensus scope of the blockchain to meet the requirements of edge computing while ensuring comprehensive log storage across the network. Additionally, we introduce a reputation management mechanism for nodes within the blockchain, evaluating their trustworthiness, workload, and efficiency. Nodes with higher reputation scores are selected to participate in tasks and are appropriately incentivized. Simulation results demonstrate that our approach achieves a task result reliability of 95% while improving computational speed.

  • FEATURE TOPIC: RESILIENT SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS TOWARDS HIGHLY DYNAMIC AND HIGHLY RELIABLE TRANSMISSION
    Peng Wei, Wei Feng, Yunfei Chen, Ning Ge, Wei Xiang
    China Communications. 2024, 21(2): 74-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/JCC.fa.2023-0635.202402

    Networked robots can perceive their surroundings, interact with each other or humans, and make decisions to accomplish specified tasks in remote/hazardous/complex environments. Satellite-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks can support such robots by providing on-demand communication services. However, under traditional open-loop communication paradigm, the network resources are usually divided into user-wise mostly-independent links, via ignoring the task-level dependency of robot collaboration. Thus, it is imperative to develop a new communication paradigm, taking into account the high-level content and values behind, to facilitate multi-robot operation. Inspired by Wiener's Cybernetics theory, this article explores a closed-loop communication paradigm for the robot-oriented satellite-UAV network. This paradigm turns to handle group-wise structured links, so as to allocate resources in a task-oriented manner. It could also exploit the mobility of robots to liberate the network from full coverage, enabling new orchestration between network serving and positive mobility control of robots. Moreover, the integration of sensing, communications, computing and control would enlarge the benefit of this new paradigm. We present a case study for joint mobile edge computing (MEC) offloading and mobility control of robots, and finally outline potential challenges and open issues.