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2017 Vol. 14, No. 6
Published: 20 June 2017

SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR COMMUNICATIONS
NETWORKS & SECURITY
COMMUNICATION THEORIES & SYSTEMS
 
   
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       COMMUNICATION THEORIES & SYSTEMS

Energy-Efficient Multi-Mode Clusters Maintenance (M2CM) for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks Hot!

Xiangdong Hu, Zhulin Liu
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 1-12
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How to energy-efficiently maintain the topology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is still a difficult problem because of their numerous nodes, highly dynamic nature, varied application scenarios and limited resources. An energy-efficient multi-mode clusters maintenance (M2CM) method is proposed based on localized and event-driven mechanism in this work, which is different from the conventional clusters maintenance model with always periodically re-clustered among the whole network style based on time-trigger for hierarchical WSNs. M2CM can meet such demands of clusters maintenance as adaptive local maintenance for the damaged clusters according to its changes in time and space field., the triggers of M2CM include such events as nodes’ residual energy being under the threshold, the load imbalance of cluster head, joining in or exiting from any cluster for new node or disable one, etc. Based on neighboring relationship of the damaged clusters, one can start a single cluster (inner-cluster) maintenance or clusters (inter-cluster) maintenance program to meet diverse demands in the topology management of hierarchical WSNs. The experiment results based on NS2 simulation show that the proposed method can significantly save energy used in maintaining a damaged network, effectively narrow down the influenced area of clusters maintenance, and increase transmitted data and prolong lifetime of network compared to the traditional schemes.
       COMMUNICATION THEORIES & SYSTEMS

Simplified Echo-State-Network Based Services Awareness for High-Speed Passive Optical Network

Huifeng Bai, Dongshan Wang, Yanbin Song
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 13-21
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With the challenge from services diversity grows greatly, the service-oriented supporting ability is required to current high-speed passive optical network (PON). Aimed to enhance the quality of service (QoS) brought by diversified-services, this paper proposes an Simplified Echo State Network (SESN) Based Services Awareness scheme in High-Speed PON (Passive Optical Network). In this proposed scheme, the ring topology is adopted in the reservoir of SESN to reduce the complexity of original Echo State Network, and system dynamics equation is introduced to keep the accuracy of SESN. According to the network architecture of 10G-EPON, a SESN Master is running in the OLT and a number of SESN Agents work in ONUs. The SESN Master plays the main function of service-awareness from the total view of various kinds services in 10G-EPON system, by fully SESN training. Then, the reservoir information of well-trained SESN in OLT will be broadcasted to all ONUs and those SESN Agents working in ONUs are allowed to conducts independent service-awareness function. Thus, resources allocation and transport policy are both determined just only in ONUs. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism is able to better supporting ability for multiple services.
       COMMUNICATION THEORIES & SYSTEMS

Power Allocation for Energy Harvesting in Wireless Body Area Networks

Xiaolan Liu, Fengye Hu, Meiqi Shao, Dan Sui, Gengxin He
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 22-31
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Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are expected to achieve high reliable communications among a large number of sensors. The outage probability can be used to measure the reliability of the WBAN. In this paper, we optimize the outage probability with the harvested energy as constraints. Firstly, the optimal transmit power of the sensor is obtained while considering a single link between an access point (AP) located on the waist and a sensor attached on the wrist over the Rayleigh fading channel. Secondly, an optimization problem is formed to minimize the outage probability. Finally, we convert the non-convex optimization problem into convex solved by the Lagrange multiplier method. Simulations show that the optimization problem is solvable. The outage probability is optimized by performing power allocation at the sensor. And our proposed algorithm achieves minimizing the outage probability when the sensor uses energy harvesting. We also demonstrate that the average outage probability is reduced with the increase of the harvested energy.
       COMMUNICATION THEORIES & SYSTEMS

Energy-Efficient Mobile Data Collection Adopting Node Cooperation in an Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

Yougan Chen, Xiaoting Jin, Xiaomei Xu
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 32-42
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This paper considers an underwater acoustic sensor network with one mobile surface node to collect data from multiple underwater nodes, where the mobile destination requests retransmission from each underwater node individually employing traditional automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) protocol. We propose a practical node cooperation (NC) protocol to enhance the collection efficiency, utilizing the fact that underwater nodes can overhear the transmission of others. To reduce the source level of underwater nodes, the underwater data collection area is divided into several sub-zones, and in each sub-zone, the mobile surface node adopting the NC protocol could switch adaptively between selective relay cooperation (SRC) and dynamic network coded cooperation (DNC). The difference of SRC and DNC lies in whether or not the selected relay node combines the local data and the data overheard from undecoded node(s) to form network coded packets in the retransmission phase. The NC protocol could also be applied across the sub-zones due to the wiretap property. In addition, we investigate the effects of different mobile collection paths, collection area division and cooperative zone design for energy saving. The numerical results show that the proposed NC protocol can effectively save energy compared with the traditional ARQ scheme.
       COMMUNICATION THEORIES & SYSTEMS

Random Access and Resource Allocation for the Coexistence of NOMA-Based and OMA-Based M2M Communications

Yali Wu, Guixia Kang, Ningbo Zhang
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 43-53
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In the future fifth generation (5G) systems, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is a promising technology that can greatly enhance the network capacity compared to orthogonal multiple access (OMA). In this paper, we propose a novel random access (RA) and resource allocation scheme for the coexistence of NOMA-based and OMA-based machine-to-machine (M2M) communications, which aims at improving the number of successful data packet transmissions and guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) (e.g., the minimum data rate requirement) for M2M communications. The algorithm of joint user equipment (UE) paring and power allocation is proposed for the coexisting RA (i.e., the coexistence of NOMA-based RA and OMA-based RA). The resource allocation for the coexisting RA is investigated, thus improving the number of successful data packet transmissions by more efficiently using the radio resources. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed RA and resource allocation scheme outperforms the conventional RA in terms of the number of successful data packet transmissions, thus is a promising technology in future M2M communications.
       COMMUNICATION THEORIES & SYSTEMS

Energy Efficient Power Allocation for Relay-Aided D2D Communications in 5G Networks

Ru Wang, Jia Liu, Guopeng Zhang, Shuanghong Huang, Ming Yuan
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 54-64
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As one of the key technologies for the fifth generation (5G) wireless networks, device-to-device (D2D) communications allow user equipment (UE) in close proximity to communicate with each other directly. Forwarded by a relay, the relay-aided D2D (RA-D2D) communications can not only be applied to communications in much longer distance but also achieve a high quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we first propose a two-layer system model allowing RA-D2D links to underlay traditional cellular uplinks. Then we maximize the energy efficiency of the RA-D2D link while satisfying the minimum data-rate of the cellular link. The optimal transmit power at both D2D transmitter and D2D relay sides is obtained by transforming the nonlinear fractional programming into a nonlinear parameter programming. Simulation results show that our proposed power allocation method is more energy efficient than the existing works, and the proposed RA-D2D scheme outperformed direct D2D scheme when the distance between two D2D users is longer.
       COMMUNICATION THEORIES & SYSTEMS

A Review of Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antennas

Ubaid Ullah, Mohd Fadzil Ain, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 65-79
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This article presents a technical review of circularly polarized (CP) dielectric resonator antennas (DRA) for wideband applications. The primary objective of this review is, to highlight the techniques used by different researchers for generating circular polarization in DRA. First, a general idea of circular polarization and it advantages over linear polarization is presented, and then all the major developments made in the CP DRA are highlighted. The emphasis of the paper is on the wideband circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna. The current state of the art and all the realizable features of the CP DRA are addressed comprehensively. Finally, some recommendations for future CP DRAs are given and the paper ends with concluding remarks.
       COMMUNICATION THEORIES & SYSTEMS

Capacity Research in Cluster-Based Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Stochastic Geometry

Xia Li, Dongxue Zhao
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 80-87
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Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have attracted wide attention in recent years. The capacity research on it is still in the initial stage, lacking adequate performance evaluation for network construction. This paper will focus on this subject by theoretical analysis and simulation, aiming to provide some insights for the actual UWSNs construction. According to the structure features of cluster-based UWSNs and the propagation characteristics of underwater acoustic signal, with the combination of signal to interference plus noise ratio, we define some capacity performance metrics, such as outage probability and transmission capacity. Based on the theory of stochastic geometry, a network capacity analytical model used in the cluster-based UWSNs is presented. The simulation results verify the validity of the theoretical analysis, and the cause of error between theoretical and simulation results has also been clearly explained.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

A Study of Configuration Evolution of an Operational IP Backbone Network

Fuliang Li, Jiahai Yang, Huijing Zhang, Xingwei Wang, Suogang Li, Jianping Wu
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 88-97
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Configuration errors are proved to be the main reasons for network interruption and anomalies. Many researchers have paid their attention to configuration analysis and provisioning, but few works focus on understanding the configuration evolution. In this paper, we uncover the configuration evolution of an operational IP backbone based on the weekly reports gathered from January 2006 to January 2013. We find that rate limiting and launching routes for new customers are configured most frequently. In addition, we conduct an analysis of network failures and find that link failures are the main causes for network failures. We suggest that we should configure redundant links for the links which are easy to break down. At last, according to the analysis results, we illustrate how to provide semi-automated configuration for rate limiting and adding customers.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

Low-Rate DoS Attack Flows Filtering Based on Frequency Spectral Analysis

Zhijun Wu*, Minxiao Wang, Changcan Yan, Meng Yue
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 98-112
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In frequency domain, the power spectrum of Low-rate denial of service (LDoS) attacks is totally spread into the spectrum of normal traffic. It is a challenging task to detect and filter LDoS attack flows from the normal traffic. Based on the analysis of LDoS attack flows and legitimate TCP traffic in time and frequency domains, the periodicity of the TCP traffic and LDoS attack flows is explored to facilitate the research of network traffic processing. Hence, an approach of LDoS attack flow filtering based on frequency spectrum analysis is proposed. In this approach, the TCP traffic and LDoS attack flows are transformed from the time domain into the frequency domain. Then the round-trip time (RTT) is estimated by using frequency domain search method. Analysis of amplitude spectrum shows that TCP traffic energy is mainly concentrated on the points of n/RTT. Therefore, a comb filter using infinite impulse response (IIR) filter is designed to filter out the LDoS attack flows in frequency domain, while most legitimate TCP traffic energy at the points of n/RTT are pass through. Experimental results show that the maximum pass rate for legitimate TCP traffic reaches 92.55%, while the maximum filtration rate of LDoS attack flows reaches 81.36%. The proposed approach can effectively filter the LDoS attack flows while less impact on the legitimate TCP traffic.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

SGuard: A Lightweight SDN Safe-Guard Architecture for DoS Attacks

Tao Wang, Hongchang Chen
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 113-125
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Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a revolutionary networking paradigm towards the future network, experiencing rapid development nowadays. However, its main characteristic, the separation of control plane and data plane, also brings about new security challenges, i.e., Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks specific to OpenFlow SDN networks to exhaust the control plane bandwidth and overload the buffer memory of OpenFlow switch. To mitigate the DoS attacks in the OpenFlow networks, we design and implement SGuard, a security application on top of the NOX controller that mainly contains two modules: Access control module and Classification module. We employ novel six-tuple as feature vector to classify traffic flows, meanwhile optimizing classification by feature ranking and selecting algorithms. All the modules will cooperate with each other to complete a series of tasks such as authorization, classification and so on. At the end of this paper, we experimentally use Mininet to evaluate SGuard in a software environment. The results show that SGuard works efficiently and accurately without adding more overhead to the SDN networks.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

Remote Three-Factor Authentication Protocol with Strong Robustness for Multi-Server Environment

Min Zhang, Jiashu Zhang, Wenrong Tan
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 126-136
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If a user wants to acquire different network services from various application servers in a traditional single server environment, the user must register these servers separately and remember different usernames and passwords for different servers. To solve these problems, a lot of authentication schemes for multi-server environment have been proposed. Recently, Odelu and Das et al. proposed a secure multi-server authentication protocol based on smart card, biometric and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). We firstly analyze Odelu et al.’s scheme and find some flaws as follows: 1) the scheme may suffer Denial of Service (Dos) attack and insider attack; 2) The scheme doesn’t have strong robustness because improper work of the register center (RC) may lead to the collapse of the whole system; 3) There are some design flaws in this scheme. For example, the user cannot choose his/her identity randomly and the register center needs to maintain a data table. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a new secure three-factor authentication protocol for multi-server environment based on Chebyshev chaotic map and secure sketch algorithm. To verify the security of the proposed scheme, we simulate our scheme using BAN logic and ProVerif tool. Through a thorough analysis, we can see that the proposed scheme not only has stronger security but also has less computation cost than Odelu et al.’s protocol.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

Accessing Alignments of Ontologies via IoT Based on SKOS Data Model

Xiulei Liu, Xia Hou, Junyang Yu, Ying Gao, Yue Zhang, Yingying Zhang
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 137-155
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Many ontologies are provided to representing semantic sensors data. However, heterogeneity exists in different sensors which makes some service operators of Internet of Thing (IoT) difficult (such as such as semantic inferring, non-linear inverted index establishing, service composing). There is a great deal of research about sensor ontology alignment dealing with the heterogeneity between the different sensor ontologies, but fewer solutions focus on exploiting syntaxes in a sensor ontology and the pattern of accessing alignments. Our solution infers alignments by extending structural subsumption algorithms to analyze syntaxes in a sensor ontology, and then combines the alignments with the SKOS model to construct the integration sensor ontology, which can be accessed via the IoT. The experiments show that the integration senor ontology in the SKOS model can be utilized via the IoT service, and the accuracy of our prototype, in average, is higher than others over the four real ontologies.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

Digital Rights Management: Model, Technology and Application

Zhaofeng Ma
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 156-167
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with rapid achievement of current information technology and computing ability and applications, much more digital content such as films, cartoons, design drawings, office documents and software source codes are produced in daily work, however to protect the content being copying, shared or deliberately stolen by inside or outside, digital rights management (DRM) became more and more important for digital content protection. In this paper, we studied various DRM model, technology and application, and first proposed DRM Security Infrastructure (DSI), in which we defined encryption, hash, signature algorithm, watermarking algorithms, authentication, usage control, trusted counter, conditional trace, secure payment, and based on the DSI we then proposed a whole classification approach and architecture of all kinds of DRMs, in which we proposed 6 typical classes of copyrights and content protection DRMs architecture: (1) Software-oriented DRM,(2) eBook-oriented DRM, (3) Video-oriented DRM, (4)Image-Oriented DRM (5) Unstructured data oriented DRM, (6) Text-oriented DRM. Based on the above DSI, we then proposed a dynamic DRM model selection method for various DRM application, which can be adapted dynamically for different technology of different applications, which can provide a whole solution for variant DRM development in a rapid and customized mode. The proposed DRM method, technology and application in this paper provided a common, flexible and extendable solution for variant DRM scenes, and can support rapid and customized development. Moreover, we proposed an opinion that the future life will enter into a new era that the content usage and consumption will not again adopt DRM technology rather than with law, liberty and morality.
       SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR COMMUNICATIONS

Robust Blind Separation for MIMO Systems against Channel Mismatch Using Second-Order Cone Programming

Zhongqiang Luo, Chengjie Li, Lidong Zhu
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 168-178
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To improve the deteriorated capacity gain and source recovery performance due to channel mismatch problem, this paper reports a research about blind separation method against channel mismatch in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The channel mismatch problem can be described as a channel with bounded fluctuant errors due to channel distortion or channel estimation errors. The problem of blind signal separation/extraction with channel mismatch is formulated as a cost function of blind source separation (BSS) subject to the second-order cone constraint, which can be called as second-order cone programing optimization problem. Then the resulting cost function is solved by approximate negentropy maximization using quasi-Newton iterative methods for blind separation/extraction source signals. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the proposed algorithm has low computational complexity and improved performance advantages. Simulation results verify that the capacity gain and bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed blind separation method is superior to those of the existing methods in MIMO systems with channel mismatch problem.
       SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR COMMUNICATIONS

Joint Subcarrier and Power Allocation for DF-Based Multiuser Two-Way Relay Networks

Xiang Chen, Fei He, Limin Xiao, Shidong Zhou
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 179-188
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Two-way decode-and-forward (DF) relay technique is an efficient method to improve system performance in 5G networks. However, traditional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based two-way relay systems only consider a per-subcarrier relay strategy, which treats each subcarrier as a separate channel, which results in significant sum rate loss, especially in fading environments. In this paper, a joint coding scheme over multiple subcarriers is involved for multi-pair users in two-way relay systems to obtain multiuser diversity. A generalized subcarrier pairing strategy is proposed to permit each user-pair to occupy different subcarriers during the two transmission phases, i.e., the multiple access and broadcast phases. Moreover, a low complexity joint resource allocation scheme is proposed to improve the spectrum efficiency with an additional multi-user diversity gain. Some numerical simulations are finally provided to verify the efficacy of our proposal.
       SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR COMMUNICATIONS

GPP Based Open Cellular Network Towards 5G

Jiang Wang, Jing Xu, Yang Yang, Haidong Xu
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 189-198
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Due to 5G’s stringent and uncertainty traffic requirements, open ecosystem would be one inevitable way to develop 5G. On the other hand, GPP based mobile communication becomes appealing recently attributed to its striking advantage in flexibility and re-configurability. In this paper, both the advantages and challenges of GPP platform are detailed analyzed. Furthermore, both GPP based software and hardware architectures for open 5G are presented and the performances of real-time signal processing and power consumption are also evaluated. The evaluation results indicate that turbo and power consumption may be another challengeable problem should be further solved to meet the requirements of realistic deployments.
       SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR COMMUNICATIONS

A 5G Virtualized RAN Based on NO Stack

Jie Zeng, Xin Su, Jinjin Gong, Liping Rong, Jing Wang
China Communications, 2017, 14(6): 199-208
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The virtualized radio access network (vRAN) could implement virtualized baseband functions on general-purpose platforms and expand the processing capacity of the radio access network (RAN) significantly. In this paper, a Not Only Stack (NO Stack) based vRAN is proposed to be employed in the fifth generation (5G) mobile communication system. It adopts advanced virtualization technologies to maintain flexible and sustainable. The baseband processing and storage resources should be sliced and orchestrated agilely to support multi radio access technology (multi-RAT). Also it is analyzed and demonstrated by different use cases to validate the benefits. The proposed vRAN reduces signaling overheads and service response time in the bearer establishment procedure. Concluded from the analyses and demonstrations, the NO Stack based vRAN could support multi-RAT convergence and flexible networking effectively.
 
 
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