Quick Search Adv Search

Home    Introduction    Mission    Editorial Board    Senior Advisors    Submission    Subscription    Staff Contact

China Communications
(ISSN 1673-5447)
(CN 11-5439/TN)
Sponsored by
China Institute of Communications
Co-Sponsored by
IEEE Communications Society
  Reviewing Center
  Peer Review login
  Admin login
 
  Online Journal
 Current Issue
  Most Read
  Accepted
  Most Download
  Email Alert
  Download
 
  Links
More>>  
  Current Issue
 
2017 Vol. 14, No. 2
Published: 10 February 2017

BOOK REVIEW
COVER PAPER
SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR COMMUNICATIONS
COMMUNICATIONS THEORIES & SYSTEMS
NETWORKS & SECURITY
ENERGY-EFFICIENT MICROWAVE COMPONENTS FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION
 
   
Select | Export to Abstract
       COVER PAPER

Diffusion Based Molecular Communication: Principle, Key Technologies, and Challenges

Jiaxing Wang, Bonan Yin, Mugen Peng
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 1-20
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
Molecular communication (MC) is a kind of communication technology based on biochemical molecules for internet of bio-nano things, in which the biochemical molecule is used as the information carrier for the interconnection of nano-devices. In this paper, the basic principle of diffusion based MC and the corresponding key technologies are comprehensively surveyed. In particular, the state-of-the-art achievements relative to the diffusion based MC are discussed and compared, including the system model, the system performance analysis with key influencing factors, the information coding and modulation techniques. Meanwhile, the multi-hop nano-network based on the diffusion MC is presented as well. Additionally, given the extensiveness of the research area, open issues and challenges are presented to spur future investigations, in which the involvement of channel model, information theory, self-organizing nano-network, and biochemical applications are put forward.
       ENERGY-EFFICIENT MICROWAVE COMPONENTS FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION

A 600W Broadband Doherty Power Amplifier with Improved Linearity for Wireless Communication System

Jing Li, Wenhua Chen, Qian Zhang
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 21-29
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
An asymmetric Doherty architecture based on three identical transistors is proposed in this paper. This proposed three-way topology reduces the difficulty in designing matching networks brought by the low optimal impedance of high power transistors. And the inverted Doherty topology as well as carefully chosen value of load impedance makes it possible to extend the bandwidth of high power amplifiers. Besides, bias networks of this proposed three-way architecture are also carefully considered to improve the linearity. The proposed high power three-way Doherty power amplifier (3W-DPA) is designed and fabricated based on theoretic analysis. Its maximum output power is about 600Watts and the drain efficiency is above 35.5% at 9dB back off output power level from 1.9GHz to 2.2 GHz and the saturated drain efficiency is above 47% across the whole frequency band. The measured concurrent two-tone results suggest that the linearity of DPA is improved by at least 5dB.
       ENERGY-EFFICIENT MICROWAVE COMPONENTS FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION

Non-Overlapping Conditions to Enable Multi-Dimensional Behavioral Models/DPDs for Multi-Band or Non-Continuous Carrier Aggregation Systems

Cuiping Yu, Ziyuan Zhang
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 30-39
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
To linearize the multi-band PAs/transmitters, a serial of multi-band predistortion models based on multi-dimensional architecture have been proposed. However, most of these models work properly only for the signals whose harmonic and intermodulation products of carriers’ non-overlap with the interested fundamental bands. In this paper, the non-overlapping conditions for dual-band and tri-band signals are derived and denoted in the form of closed-form expression. It can be used to verify whether a given dual-band/multi-band signals can be linearized properly by these multi-dimensional behavioral models. Also the conditions can be used to plan the frequency spacing and maximum bandwidth of a multi-band or non-continuous carrier aggregation signal. Several dual-band and tri-band signals were tested on the same PA, by employing 2-D DPD and 3-D DPD behavioral models. The measurement results show that the signals which don’t satisfy the non-overlapping conditions cannot be linearized well by the multi-dimensional behavioral models which does not take the harmonic and intermodulation products of carriers’ into account.
       ENERGY-EFFICIENT MICROWAVE COMPONENTS FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION

Planar Compact Dual-Band Coupled-Line Balun with High Isolation

Weiwei Zhang, Yongle Wu, Weimin Wang, Xiaochuan Shen
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 40-48
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
A planar circuit structure, which is based on three cascaded pairs of coupled lines, an open stub, and an isolation resistor, is proposed in this paper to design a compact dual-band balun with high isolation. This circuit features equal power division with out of phase, all ports matching, high isolation between two outputs, compact structure, and inherent impedance transformation. The closed-form design equations are derived based on the traditional transmission-line theory and even-(odd-) mode analysis. A practical dual-band balun, which operates at 0.9/1.8GHz, is designed and fabricated to validate the function of equal power division with out of phase and high isolation between two outputs. The consistency between the simulated and measured results verify the design theory.
       ENERGY-EFFICIENT MICROWAVE COMPONENTS FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION

Compact Coplanar Epsilon-Negative Antenna with Ultra-Wide Band Character

Jun Tao, Quanyuan Feng, Zongliang Zheng
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 49-56
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
In this paper, a compact coplanar epsilon-negative (ENG) antenna is proposed with ultra-wide operation band and small size of 18×11.5 mm2. The proposed antenna is designed based on a coplanar-waveguide (CPW) feeding antenna, and thus the via-free structure is employed to realize the ENG unit cell, which is convenient to tune the frequency of zeroth-order resonance (ZOR) and extends the ZOR bandwidth. The high-order resonant frequencies are achieved and mainly determined by the separate slots that are located between the radiating patch and the ground plane. Adding the left-handed inductance between the radiating patch and ground has slight impact on the high-order resonant frequencies, and then the ultra-wide band is achieved by merging the ZOR bandwidth with the high-order resonant bandwidths. The ground plane primarily works as a matching network for the proposed antenna. Although it generates a low-frequency resonance, the performance is undesirable due to the impedance mismatching. The measured results show that the reflection coefficient, |S11| < -10 dB, is in a wide frequency range from 5.25 to 13 GHz, which covers the upper operation band of UWB communication. Also, the antenna contains relatively stable gains and omni-directional radiation patterns.
       COMMUNICATIONS THEORIES & SYSTEMS

Power Allocation for Wireless Powered MIMO Transmissions with Non-Linear RF Energy Conversion Models

Liqin Shi, Liqiang Zhao, Kai Liang
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 57-64
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
We study a radio frequency (RF) wireless energy transfer (WET) enabled multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system. A time slotted transmission pattern is considered. Each slot can be divided into two phases, downlink (DL) WET and uplink (UL) wireless information transmission (WIT). Since energy conversion efficiency of the energy harvesting circuits are non-linear, the conventional linear model leads to a mismatch for resource allocation. In this paper, the power allocation algorithm considering the practical non-linear energy harvesting circuits is studied. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the energy efficiency of system with multiple constraints, i.e., the transmission power, the received power and the minimum harvested energy, which is a non-convex problem. We transform the objective function from fractional form into an equivalent objective function in subtractive form and provide an iterative power allocation algorithm to achieve the optimal solution. Numerical results show that our proposed algorithm with the non-linear RF energy conversion models can achieve much better performance than the algorithm with the conventional linear model.
       COMMUNICATIONS THEORIES & SYSTEMS

LanePost: Lane-Based Optimal Routing Protocol for Delay-Tolerant Maritime Networks

Xiongfei Geng, Yongcai Wang, Haoran Feng, Lu Zhang
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 65-78
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
Ship-to-ship, ship-to-shore radio links empowered by WiFi, WiMAX etc have been recently exploited to build maritime multi-hop mesh networks to provide internet services to on-ship users. However, because of the mobility of the vessels/ships and the large inter-ship distances, nodes in the maritime network are frequently disconnected, forcing data communication in the maritime mesh networks to be opportunistic and delay-tolerant. In this paper, we present LanePost, an optimization approach for maritime delay-tolerant routing protocol. We exploit the shipping lane information to predict the rendezvous opportunities of the ships to optimize the route selection in delay-tolerant routing. In particular, we show that when the shipping lane information is available, an opportunistic routing graph (ORG) for each ship can be constructed to predict its multi-hop data routing opportunities to the other ships or to the shore. Based on the ORG, we develop an optimal route protocol (i.e., LanePost) for each ship to minimize its delay of multi-hop packet delivery via dynamic programming. We discussed the ways of collecting shipping lane information by centralized method or distributed method. The proposed LanePost protocol was evaluated by ONE, an open-source delay-tolerant network simulator, which shows its dramatic performance improvement in terms of delay reduction compared to the state-of-the-art opportunistic routing protocols.
       COMMUNICATIONS THEORIES & SYSTEMS

An Adaptive Traffic Distribution Scheme for CMT based on Lotka-Volterra Model in Multihomed Networks

Weibing Gong, Xiaolong Yang, Min Zhang, Keping Long
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 79-89
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
CMT (concurrent multipath transfer) can increase throughput and transmission efficiency in multihomed networks. However, it is still an important challenge about distributing traffic adaptively into multiple access networks. Based on LV (Lotka-Volterra) model, we propose an adaptive traffic distribution scheme. In the scheme, two competition modes are concluded, multiple S-D (source-destination) streams competition for bandwidth of one path and multipath competition for traffic between each multihomed S-D host pair. Actually, each access network can establish a path for S-D pairs. So, in the first mode, each path is analogous to a predator, and overall traffic in a multihomed host is analogous to prey. Then, each path has to compete for the traffic by path information, e.g., bandwidth and congestion level. In the other one, if several S-D pairs pass through a shared path simultaneously, they will compete for bandwidth of the path. Here, each S-D pair is analogous to a predator, and the bandwidth of the common path is analogous to the prey. At last, compared with other three schemes, uniform traffic distribution, greedy path selection, random path selection in OPNET simulator, the proposed scheme can perform better on reducing file transmission time and increasing network throughput in FTP service.
       COMMUNICATIONS THEORIES & SYSTEMS

QoE-Driven Energy-Aware Multipath Content Delivery Approach for MPTCP-Based Mobile Phones

Yuanlong Cao, Shengyang Chen, Qinghua Liu, Yi Zuo, Hao Wang, Minghe Huang
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 90-103
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
Mobile phones equipped with multiple wireless interfaces can increase their goodput performance by making use of concurrent transmissions over multiple paths, enabled by the Multipath TCP (MPTCP). However, utilizing MPTCP for data delivery may generally result in higher energy consumption, while the battery power of a mobile phone is limited. Thus, how to optimize the energy usage becomes very crucial and urgent. In this paper, we propose MPTCP-QE, a novel quality of experience (QoE)-driven energy-aware multipath content delivery approach for MPTCP-based mobile phones. The main idea of MPTCP-QE is described as follows: it first provides an application rate-aware energy-efficient subflow management strategy to tradeoff throughput performance and energy consumption for mobile phones; then uses an available bandwidth-aware congestion window fast recovery strategy to make a sender avoid unnecessary slow-start and utilize wireless resource quickly; and further introduces a novel receiver-driven energy-efficient SACK strategy to help a receiver possible to detect SACK loss timely and trigger loss recovery in a more energy-efficient way. The simulation results show that with the MPTCP-QE, the energy usage is enhanced while the performance level is maintained compared to existing MPTCP solutions.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

Orchestrating Network Functions in Software-Defined Networks

Hongchao Hu, Lin Pang, Zhenpeng Wang, Guozhen Cheng
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 104-117
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
Software-defined networking (SDN) enables third-part companies to participate in the network function innovations. A number of instances for one network function will inevitably co-exist in the network. Although some orchestration architecture has been proposed to chain network functions, rare works are focused on how to optimize this process. In this paper, we propose an optimized model for network function orchestration, function combination model (FCM). Our main contributions are as following. First, network functions are featured with a new abstraction, and are open to external providers. And FCM identifies network functions using unique type, and organizes their instances distributed over the network with the appropriate way. Second, with the specialized demands, we can combine function instances under the global network views, and formulate it into the problem of Boolean linear program (BLP). A simulated annealing algorithm is designed to approach optimal solution for this BLP. Finally, the numerical experiment demonstrates that our model can create outstanding composite schemas efficiently.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

RGB Based Multiple Share Creation in Visual Cryptography with Aid of Elliptic Curve Cryptography

K. Shankar, P. Eswaran
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 118-130
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
In visual cryptography, many shares are generated which are illogical containing certain message within themselves. When all shares are piled jointly, they tend to expose the secret of the image. The notion of visual secret sharing scheme is to encrypt a secret image into n illogical share images. It is unable to reveal any data on the original image if at least one of the shares is not achieved. The original image, in fact, is realized by overlapping the entire shares directly, in order that the human visual system is competent to identify the collective secret image without employing any complicated computational tools. Therefore, they are communicated steadily as number of shares. The elliptic curve cryptography approach, in turn, is employed to augment the privacy and safety of the image. The new-fangled technique is utilized to generate the multiple shares which are subjected to encryption and decryption by means of the elliptic curve cryptography technique. The test outcomes have revealed the fact that the peak signal to noise ratio is 58.0025, Mean square error value is 0.1164 and the correlation coefficient is 1 for the decrypted image without any sort of distortion of the original image.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

Distributed Document Clustering Analysis Based on a Hybrid Method

J.E. Judith, J. Jayakumari
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 131-142
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
Clustering is one of the recently challenging tasks since there is an ever-growing amount of data in scientific research and commercial applications. High quality and fast document clustering algorithms are in great demand to deal with large volume of data. The computational requirements for bringing such growing amount data to a central site for clustering are complex. The proposed algorithm uses optimal centroids for K-Means clustering based on Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO).PSO is used to take advantage of its global search ability to provide optimal centroids which aids in generating more compact clusters with improved accuracy. This proposed methodology utilizes Hadoop and MapReduce framework which provides distributed storage and analysis to support data intensive distributed applications. Experiments were performed on Reuter’s and RCV1 document dataset which shows an improvement in accuracy with reduced execution time.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

Open Access Strategy in Cloud Computing-Based Heterogenous Networks Constrained by Wireless Fronthaul

Zhongyuan Zhao, Yong Li, Weiliang Xie, Min Wang, Wenbo Wang
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 143-153
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
Cloud computing-based heterogeneous networks (C-HetNets) have been considered as promising network architecture of future wireless communication systems. However, its performance is constrained by the capability of fronthaul. To study the performance limit of C-HetNets, the coverage performance of the open access strategy in C-HetNets is analyzed in this paper. In particular, the non-ideal condition of fronthaul in C-HetNets is characterized by establishing a stochastic geometry-based model, and a tight lower bound on coverage probability is derived for downlink transmissions. Based on the derived results, the constraint of the fronthaul is given to ensure that open access strategy can achieve the best coverage performance. Finally, the simulation results are provided to verify the theoretical results and show the impact of fronthaul constrains.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

An Open IoT Framework Based on Microservices Architecture

Long Sun, Yan Li, Raheel Ahmed Memon
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 154-162
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
With the continuous development and evolvement of Internet of Things (IoT), monolithic application becomes much larger in scale and even more complex in structure. This leads to poor scalability, extensibility and maintainability. In response to those challenges, microservice architecture has been introduced in the field of IoT application, due to its flexibility, lightweight and loose coupling. However, the existing IoT framework of microservice mainly focus on a specific domain, therefore, this greatly limits its application. In this paper, we propose a general microservice system framework for the IoT application, which is a better scalable, extendable and maintainable architecture. We introduce its system design and related microservices, and emphasize on core service and device communication from service layer to physical layer. It has better capacity to support interoperability and accommodate heterogeneous objects. In addition, this framework can easily achieve more application integration such as automation, intelligence, Geo service and Big Data.
       NETWORKS & SECURITY

Action Recognition with Temporal Scale-Invariant Deep Learning Framework

Huafeng Chen, Jun Chen, Ruimin Hu, Chen Chen, Zhongyuan Wang
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 163-172
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
Recognizing actions according to video features is an important problem in a wide scope of applications. In this paper, we propose a temporal scale-invariant deep learning framework for action recognition, which is robust to the change of action speed. Specifically, a video is firstly split into several sub-action clips and a keyframe is selected from each sub-action clip. The spatial and motion features of the keyframe are extracted separately by two Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and combined in the convolutional fusion layer for learning the relationship between the features. Then, Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks are applied to the fused features to formulate long-term temporal clues. Finally, the action prediction scores of the LSTM network are combined by linear weighted summation. Extensive experiments are conducted on two popular and challenging benchmarks, namely, the UCF-101 and the HMDB51 Human Actions. On both benchmarks, our framework achieves superior results over the state-of-the-art methods by 93.7% on UCF-101 and 69.5% on HMDB51, respectively.
       SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR COMMUNICATIONS

High-Performance Beamformer and Low-Complexity Detector for DF-Based Full-Duplex MIMO Relaying Networks

Feng Shu, Ye Zhou, Riqing Chen, Jin Wang, Jun Li, Branka Vucetic
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 173-182
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
In this paper, we consider a full-duplex multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relaying network with the decode-and-forward (DF) protocol. Due to the full-duplex transmissions, the self-interference from the relay transmitter to the relay receiver degrades the system performance. We thus propose an iterative beamforming structure (IBS) to mitigate the self-interference. In this method, the receive beamforming at the relay is optimized to maximize the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (Max-SINR), while the transmit beamforming at the relay is optimized to maximize the signal-to-leakage-plus-noise-ratio (Max-SLNR). To further improve the performance, the receive and transmit beamforming matrices are optimized between Max-SINR and Max-SLNR in an iterative manner. Furthermore, in the presence of the residual self-interference, a low-complexity whitening-filter (WF) maximum likelihood (ML) detector is proposed. In this detector, a WF is designed to transform a colored interference-plus-noise to a white noise, while the singular value decomposition is used to convert coupled spatial subchannels to parallel independent ones. From simulations, we find that the proposed IBS performs much better than the existing schemes. Also, the proposed low-complexity detector significantly reduces the complexity of the conventional ML (CML) detector from exponential time (an exponential function of the number of the source transmit antennas) to polynomial one while achieving a slightly better BER performance than the CML due to interference whitening.
       BOOK REVIEW

5G Green Mobile Communication Networks

Guoqiang Mao
China Communications, 2017, 14(2): 183-184
Full Text: PDF (0 KB)  
Show Abstract
 
 
Copyright © 2015 China Communications.All Rights Reserved
Phone/Fax: +86 10 64553845,82051670
Support by Beijing Magtech Co.ltd