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China Communications
(ISSN 1673-5447)
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2016 Vol. 13, No. 6
Published: 20 June 2016

Guest Editorial
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       Guest Editorial

A Novel Resource Allocation Algorithm based on Downlink and Uplink Decouple Access Scheme in Heterogeneous Networks

Laiwei Jiang*, Xuejun Sha, Xuanli Wu, Naitong Zhang
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 22-31
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Traditional cellular network requires that a user equipment (UE) should associate to the same base station (BS) in both the downlink (DL) and the uplink (UL). Based on dual connectivity (DC) introduced in LTE-Advanced R12, DL/UL decouple access scheme has been proposed, which is especially suitable for heterogeneous networks (HetNets). This paper is the pioneer to take the DL/UL decouple access scheme into consideration and develop a novel resource allocation algorithm in a two-tier HetNet to improve the total system throughput in the UL and ease the load imbalance between macro base stations (MBSs) and pico base stations (PBSs). A model is formulated as a nonlinear integer programming, and the proposed algorithm is a sub-optimal algorithm based on the graph theory. First, an undirected and weighted interference graph is obtained. Next, the users are grouped to let users with large mutual interferences to be assigned to different clusters. Then, the users in different clusters are allocated to different resource blocks (RBs) by using the Hungarian algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can provide great promotions for both the total system throughput and the average cell edge user throughput and successfully ease the load imbalance between MBSs and PBSs.

Exact Solutions of VNE: A Survey

Haotong Cao, Longxiang Yang, Zeyuan Liu, Mengting Wu
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 48-62
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Network virtualization is an enabling technology of running multiple virtual networks on a shared substrate network. It aims to deal with the ossification of current network architecture. As a crucial component of network virtualization, virtual network embedding (VNE) can efficiently and effectively allocates the substrate resource to proposed virtual network requests. According to the optimization strategy, VNE approaches can be classified into three categories: exact, heuristic and meta-heuristic solution. The VNE exact solution is the foundation of its corresponding heuristic and meta-heuristic solutions. This paper presents a survey of existing typical VNE exact solutions, and open problems for the future research of VNE exact solutions are proposed.

Review of Ultraviolet Non-Line-of-Sight Communication

Renzhi Yuan, Jianshe Ma
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 63-75
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With rapid advances of solar blind ultraviolet LED and ultraviolet detecting technology in recent years, ultraviolet communication gradually becomes a research hotspot due to its inherent advantages: low solar background noise, non-line-of-sight(NLOS) and good secrecy. The strong scattering characteristics in atmospheric render ultraviolet waveband the ideal choice for achieving NLOS optical communication. This paper reviews the research history and status of ultraviolet communication both in China and abroad, and especially introduces three main issues of ultraviolet communication: channel model, system analysis and design, light sources and detectors. For each aspect, current open issues and prospective research directions are analyzed.

Cost Effective Scheme for OLT in Next Generation Passive Optical Access Network Based on Noise Free Optical Multi Carrier

Rahat Ullah, Bo Liu, Qi Zhang, Qinghua Tian, Amjad Ali, Yousaf Khan, Feng Tian, M. Azam Zia, Haseeb Ahmad, Lijia Zhang, Xiangjun Xin
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 76-87
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We propose a cost-effective multi-carrier generation technique which minimizes the passive optical access network (PON) costs. In this study replacement of laser array with multi-carrier source at optical line terminal (OLT) side in PON is addressed. With 25-GHz frequency spacing, the generated optical multi-carriers exhibit good tone to noise ratio (TNR) i. e. above 20dB, and least amplitude difference i. e. 1.5dB. At the OLT, multi-carriers signal based multiplexed differential phase shift keying (DPSK) data from all the channels each having 10Gbps for downlink is transmitted through 25km single mode fiber. While the transmitted information is retrieved at optical network unit (ONU), part of the downlink signal is re-modulated using intensity modulated (IM) on-off keying(OOK) for upstream transmission at 10-Gbps. Simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis, showing error free transmission in downlink and uplink with 10Gbps symmetric data rate at each channel. The received power, both for uplink and downlink transmission, is adequate for all channels at BER of 10-9 with minimum power penalties. Power budget is calculated for different splitting ratios showing excellent system margins for any unseen losses. The proposed setup provides a cost-effective way minimizing transmission losses, and providing greater system’s margin in PON architecture.

APO-Based Parallel Algorithm of Channel Allocation for Cognitive Networks

Ming Zhong*, Hailin Zhang, Bei Ma
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 100-109
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This article investigates channel allocation for cognitive networks, which is difficult to obtain the optimal allocation distribution. We first study interferences between nodes in cognitive networks and establish the channel allocation model with interference constraints. Then we focus on the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve the optimal allocation distribution. We further consider that the search time can be reduced by means of parallel computing, and then a parallel algorithm based APO is proposed. In contrast with the existing algorithms, we decompose the allocation vector into a number of sub-vectors and search for optimal allocation distribution of sub-vector in parallel. In order to speed up converged rate and improve converged value, some typical operations of evolutionary algorithms are modified by two novel operators. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed algorithm drastically outperform other optimal solutions in term of the network utilization.

Probabilistic Top-k Query: Model and Application on Web Traffic Analysis

Xiaolin Gui, Jun Liu, Qiujian Lv, Chao Dong, Zhenming Lei
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 123-137
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Top-k ranking of websites according to traffic volume is important for Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to understand network status and optimize network resources. However, the ranking result always has a big deviation with actual rank for the existence of unknown web traffic, which cannot be identified accurately under current techniques. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to approximate the actual rank. This method associates unknown web traffic with websites according to statistical probabilities. Then, we construct a probabilistic top-k query model to rank websites. We conduct several experiments by using real HTTP traffic traces collected from a commercial ISP covering an entire city in northern China. Experimental results show that the proposed techniques can reduce the deviation existing between the ground truth and the ranking results vastly. In addition, we find that the websites providing video service have higher ratio of unknown IP as well as higher ratio of unknown traffic than the websites providing text web page service. Specifically, we find that the top-3 video websites have more than 90% of unknown web traffic. All these findings are helpful for ISPs understanding network status and deploying Content Distributed Network (CDN).

A Symbol Timing Recovery Algorithm of M-PSK Signals for Burst Modem Applications with Small Packet Size

Yu Chi, Lan Chen*, Chao Lv
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 138-146
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Feedforward symbol timing recovery techniques are particularly important for initial acquisition in burst modems. However, these techniques either have large calculation burden or sensitive to frequency offsets. In this paper, we proposed an efficient symbol timing recovery algorithm of MPSK signals named OMQ (Ordered Maximum power using Quadratic approximation partially) algorithm which is based on the Quadratic Approximation (QA) algorithm. We used ordered statistic sorting method to reduce the computational complexity further, meanwhile maximum mean power principle was used to decrease frequency offset sensitivity. The proposed algorithm adopts estimation-down sampling structure which is suitable for small packet size transmission. The results show that, while comparing with the QA algorithm, the computational complexity is reduced by 75% at most when 8 samples per symbol are used. The proposed algorithm shows better performance in terms of the jitter variance and sensitivity to frequency offsets.

On Energy Efficient Design for Dynamic CoMP Transmission in K-Tier Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

Min Xu, Xiaofeng Tao*, Fan Yang, Huici Wu
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 147-153
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Motivated by the objective of pursuing revenue, improvement in coverage and reduction in energy cost for wireless communication networks have been of great significance for mobile operators. Therefore, heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) and Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) transmission are considered as promising solutions to enhance the performances of wireless communication systems. This paper analyzed the K-tier HCNs with a dynamic downlink CoMP scheme, in which the flexible clusters of cooperative stations are determined by a connecting threshold θ. Using stochastic geometry, the coverage probability (CP) and energy efficiency (EE) of a K-tier HCN operating under this scheme are derived, based on which the trade-off between CP and EE is discovered and discussed. Simulation results show the validity of our derivations. The proposed schememay significantly reduce energy consumption sacrificing a small amount of CP, and outperforms the fixed scheme as well. The CP-EE trade-off are also revealed, whichsuggests suitable trade-off points between CP and EE that will deliver the maximum economic profitability. Tendencies discovered in this paper may provide the operators with opportunities for further optimization in pursuit of economic profitability.

A Frameless Network Architecture for the Way Forward of C-RAN

Xiaodong Xu, Zhao Sun, Xun Dai, Xiaofeng Tao, Ping Zhang
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 154-166
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The key technologies involved in the evolution of the Cloud-based Radio Access Network (C-RAN) are discussed in this paper. Taking the Frameless Network Architecture (FNA) as a starting point, a cell-less-based network topology for a multi-tier Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) and ultra-dense network is proposed. The FNA network topology modeling is researched with centralized processing and distributed antenna deployments. The Antenna Element (AE) is released as a new dimensional radio resource that is included in the centralized Radio Resource Management (RRM) processes. This contributes to the on-demand user-centric serving-set associations with cell-edge effect elimination. The Control Plane (CP) and User Plane (UP) separation and adaptation are introduced for energy efficiency improvements. The centralized RRM and different optimization goals are discussed for fully exploring the merits from the centralized computing of C-RAN. Considering the complexity, near-optimal approaches for specific users’ Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements are addressed. Finally, based on the research highlighted above, the way forward of C-RAN evolution is discussed.

Packet Cache-Forward Method Based on Improved Bayesian Outlier Detection for Mobile Handover in Satellite Networks

Hefei Hu, Dongming Yuan, Mingxia Liao, Yuan’an Liu
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 167-177
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In this paper, we propose a Packet Cache-Forward (PCF) method based on improved Bayesian outlier detection to eliminate out-of-order packets caused by transmission path drastically degradation during handover events in the moving satellite networks, for improving the performance of TCP. The proposed method uses an access node satellite to cache all received packets in a short time when handover occurs and forward them out in order. To calculate the cache time accurately, this paper establishes the Bayesian based mixture model for detecting delay outliers of the entire handover scheme. In view of the outliers’ misjudgment, an updated classification threshold and the sliding window has been suggested to correct category collections and model parameters for the purpose of quickly identifying exact compensation delay in the varied network load statuses. Simulation shows that, comparing to average processing delay detection method, the average accuracy rate was scaled up by about 4.0%, and there is about 5.5% cut in error rate in the meantime. It also behaves well even though testing with big dataset. Benefiting from the advantage of the proposed scheme in terms of performance, comparing to conventional independent handover and network controlled synchronized handover in simulated LEO satellite networks, the proposed independent handover with PCF eliminates packet out-of-order issue to get better improvement on congestion window. Eventually the average delay decreases more than 70% and TCP performance has improved more than 300%.

Cluster Based Secure Dynamic Keying Technique for Heterogeneous Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Thiruppathy Kesavan. V, Radhakrishnan. S
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 178-194
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In Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks, the mobility of the sensor nodes becomes essential in various applications. During node mobility, there are possibilities for the malicious node to become the cluster head or cluster member. This causes the cluster or the whole network to be controlled by the malicious nodes. To offer high level of security, the mobile sensor nodes need to be authenticated. Further, clustering of nodes improves scalability, energy efficient routing and data delivery. In this paper, we propose a cluster based secure dynamic keying technique to authenticate the nodes during mobility. The nodes with high configuration are chosen as cluster heads based on the weight value which is estimated using parameters such as the node degree, average distance, node’s average speed, and virtual battery power. The keys are dynamically generated and used for providing security. Even the keys are compromised by the attackers, they are not able to use the previous keys to cheat or disuse the authenticated nodes. In addition, a bidirectional malicious node detection technique is employed which eliminates the malicious node from the network. By simulation, it is proved that the proposed technique provides efficient security with reduced energy consumption during node mobility.

Membership Proof and Verification in Authenticated Skip Lists Based on Heap

Shuanghe Peng*, Zhige Chen, Deen Chen
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 195-204
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How to keep cloud data intact and available to users is a problem to be solved. Authenticated skip list is an important data structure used in cloud data integrity verification. How to get the membership proof of the element in authenticated skip list efficiently is an important part of authentication. Kaouthar Blibech and Alban Gabillon proposed a head proof and a tail proof algorithms for the membership proof of elements in the authenticated skip list. However, the proposed algorithms are uncorrelated each other and need plateau function. We propose a new algorithm for computing the membership proof for elements in the authenticated skip list by using two stacks, one is for storing traversal chain of leaf node, the other is for storing authentication path for the leaf. The proposed algorithm is simple and effective without needing plateau function. It can also be applicable for other similar binary hash trees.

A Practical Group Key Management Algorithm for Cloud Data Sharing with Dynamic Group

Wei Song, Hua Zou, Haowen Liu, Jun Chen
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 205-216
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Cloud data sharing service, which allows a group of people to work together to access and modify the shared data, is one of the most popular and efficient working styles in the enterprises. However, the cloud server is not completely trusted, and its security could be compromised by monetary reasons or caused by hacking and hardware errors. Therefore, despite of having advantages of scalability and flexibility, cloud storage service comes with privacy and the security concerns. A straightforward method to protect the user’s privacy is to encrypt the data stored at the cloud. To enable the authenticated users to access the encrypted cloud data, a practical group key management algorithm for the cloud data sharing application is highly desired. The existing group key management mechanisms presume that the server is trusted. But, the cloud data service mode does not always meet this condition. How to manage the group keys to support the scenario of the cloud storage with a semi-trusted cloud server is still a challenging task. Moreover, the cloud storage system is a large-scale and open application, in which the user group is dynamic. To address this problem, we propose a practical group key management algorithm based on a proxy re-encryption mechanism in this paper. We use the cloud server to act as a proxy to re-encrypt the group key to allow authorized users to decrypt and get the group key by their private key. To achieve the hierarchical access control policy, our scheme enables the cloud server to convert the encrypted group key of the lower group to the upper group. The numerical analysis and experimental results further validate the high efficiency and security of the proposed scheme.

Cryptanalysis of Cryptosystems Based on General Linear Group

Jianwei Jia, Jinhui Liu, Huanguo Zhang
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 217-224
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Advances in quantum computers threaten to break public key cryptosystems such as RSA, ECC, and EIGamal on the hardness of factoring or taking a discrete logarithm, while no quantum algorithms are found to solve certain mathematical problems on non-commutative algebraic structures until now. In this background, Majid Khan et al. proposed two novel public-key encryption schemes based on large abelian subgroup of general linear group over a residue ring. In this paper we show that the two schemes are not secure. We present that they are vulnerable to a structural attack and that, it only requires polynomial time complexity to retrieve the message from associated public keys respectively. Then we conduct a detailed analysis on attack methods and show corresponding algorithmic description and efficiency analysis respectively. After that, we propose an improvement assisted to enhance Majid Khan’s scheme. In addition, we discuss possible lines of future work.

A Practice Guide of Software Aging Prediction in a Web Server Based on Machine Learning

Yongquan Yan, Ping Guo
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 225-235
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In the past two decades, software aging has been studied by both academic and industry communities. Many scholars focused on analytical methods or time series to model software aging process. While machine learning has been shown as a very promising technique in application to forecast software state: normal or aging. In this paper, we proposed a method which can give practice guide to forecast software aging using machine learning algorithm. Firstly, we collected data from a running commercial web server and preprocessed these data. Secondly, feature selection algorithm was applied to find a subset of model parameters set. Thirdly, time series model was used to predict values of selected parameters in advance. Fourthly, some machine learning algorithms were used to model software aging process and to predict software aging. Fifthly, we used sensitivity analysis to analyze how heavily outcomes changed following input variables change. In the last, we applied our method to an IIS web server. Through analysis of the experiment results, we find that our proposed method can predict software aging in the early stage of system development life cycle.

A Novel Two-Stage Dynamic Spectrum Sharing Scheme in Cognitive Radio Networks

Guodong Zhang, Wei Heng, Tian Liang, Chao Meng, Jinming Hu
China Communications, 2016, 13(6): 236-246
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In order to enhance the efficiency of spectrum utilization and reduce communication overhead in spectrum sharing process, we propose a two-stage dynamic spectrum sharing scheme in which cooperative and noncooperative modes are analyzed in both stages. In particular, the existence and the uniqueness of Nash Equilibrium (NE) strategies for noncooperative mode are proved. In addition, a distributed iterative algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal solutions of the scheme. Simulation studies are carried out to show the performance comparison between two modes as well as the system revenue improvement of the proposed scheme compared with a conventional scheme without a virtual price control factor.
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