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2016 Vol. 13, No. 1z
Published: 10 May 2016

NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
INFORMATION-CENTRIC NETWORK
NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY
NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION
NETWORK SECURITY
 
   
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       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

A Summary of the Large-Scale Access Convergence Network Structure

LAN Julong, ZHANG Xiaohui, SHEN Juan, HU Yuxiang, WANG Xiang, MAO Zhenshan, WANG Lingqiang, LIANG Dong
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 1-5
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Under the requirement of everything over IP, network service shows the following characteristics: (1) network service increases its richness; (2) broadband streaming media becomes the mainstream. To achieve unified multi-service bearing in the IP network, the large-scale access convergence network architecture is proposed. This flat access convergence structure with ultra-small hops, which shortens the service transmission path, reduces the complexity of the edge of the network, and achieves IP strong waist model with the integration of computation, storage and transmission. The key technologies are also introduced in this paper, including end-to-end performance guarantee for real time interactive services, fog storing mechanism, and built-in safety transmission with integration of aggregation and control.
       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

Is Minimizing Flow Completion Time the Optimal Way in Meeting Flow’s Deadline in Datacenter Networks

XU Yakun, LUO Hongbin, REN Fei
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 6-15
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In modern datacenters, the most common method to solve the network latency problem is to minimize flow completion time during the transmission process. Following the soft real-time nature, the optimization of transport latency is relaxed to meet a flow’s deadline in deadline-sensitive services. However, none of existing deadline-sensitive protocols consider deadline as a constraint condition of transmission. They can only simplify the objective of meeting a flow’s deadline as a deadline-aware mechanism by assigning a higher priority for tight-deadline constrained flows to finish the transmission as soon as possible, which results in an unsatisfactory effect in the condition of high fan-in degree. It drives us to take a step back and rethink whether minimizing flow completion time is the optimal way in meeting flow’s deadline. In this paper, we focus on the design of a soft real-time transport protocol with deadline constraint in datacenters and present a flow-based deadline scheduling scheme for datacenter networks (FBDS). FBDS makes the unilateral deadline-aware flow transmission with priority transform into a compound centralized single-machine deadline-based flow scheduling decision. In addition, FBDS blocks the flow sets and postpones some flows with extra time until their deadlines to make room for the new arriving flows in order to improve the deadline meeting rate. Our simulation results on flow completion time and deadline meeting rate reveal the potential of FBDS in terms of a considerable deadline-sensitive transport protocol for deadline-sensitive interactive services.
       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

ForSA — A New Software Defined Network Architecture Based on ForCES

LI Chuanhuang, CEN Lijie, GONG Liang, WANG Weiming, JIN Rong, LAN Julong
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 16-30
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In recent years, SDN (Software Defined Network) as a new network architecture has become the hot research point. Meanwhile, the well-known OpenFlow-based SDN got a lot of attention. But it can’t provide a flexible and effective network resource description method. As an open programmable technology, ForCES (Forwarding and Control Element Separation) has also been concerned. However, ForCES is confined within a single network node and cannot be applied to the entire network. This paper proposes a new architecture — ForSA (ForCES-based SDN architecture). The architecture is added a configuration layer based on the traditional SDN architecture, which solves the problem that the northbound interface is not clear between the application layer and the control layer in the SDN architecture. ForSA also implements the compatibility within various forwarding devices in the forwarding layer.
       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

ApplianceBricks: A Scalable Network Appliance Architecture for Network Functions Virtualization

MA Shicong, WANG Baosheng, ZHANG Xiaozhe, GAO Xianming
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 32-42
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Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is an attempt to help operators more effectively manage their networks by implementing traditional network functions embedded in specialized hardware platforms in term of virtualized software instances. But, existing novel network appliances designed for NFV infrastructure are always architected on a general-purpose x86 server, which makes the performance of network functions limited by the hosted single server. To address this challenge, we propose ApplianceBricks, a novel NFV-enable network appliance architecture that is used to explore the way of consolidating multiple physical network functions into a clustered network appliance, which is able to improve the processing capability of NFV-enabled network appliances.
       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

A Dynamic Protocol Stack Structure for Diversified QoS Requirements in Ad Hoc Network

DONG Fang, Li Ou, RAN Xiaomin, JIN Feicai
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 43-53
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A dynamic protocol stack (DPS) for ad hoc networks, together with a protocol stack construction scheme that is modeled as a multi-constrained knapsack problem is proposed. Compared to the traditional static protocol stack, DPS operates in a dynamic and adaptive manner and is scalable to network condition changes. In addition, a protocol construction algorithm is proposed to dynamically construct of the protocol stack each network node. Simulation results show that, the processing and forwarding performance of our scheme is close to 1 Gb/s, and the performance of our algorithm is close to that of the classical algorithms with much lower complexity.
       INFORMATION-CENTRIC NETWORK

Little for More: An Active Discovery Strategy for Content Routing in ICN

PAN Kai, LI Hui, LIU Weiyang, LI Dagang
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 54-64
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While receiving a certain packet with unknown destination, a router either simply drops it or sends queries around as a remedy. Dropping it sacrifices transmission stability, but sending queries may cause too much overload. Such situation can be seen more frequently in Information-Centric Networking (ICN) since it has a larger namespace for routing destinations. In this paper, we propose the neighboring chunk aware discovery (NCAD), an active discovery strategy for content routing. NCAD can reduce the cost of resolving unknown contents, which is not yet considered by the conventional routing mechanism. The idea behind NCAD is to ask the nodes to report back more possession information about the queried content in prediction of later use. To this end, we de-sign NCAD with several different considerations, and balance the tradeoff between effectiveness in conjunction with the overhead to achieve optima on the whole. Extensive experiments are conducted on a small typical topology and a large real-world Internet AS-level topology. Experimental results show an overall supe-riority of NCAD in terms of both effectiveness and overhead.
       INFORMATION-CENTRIC NETWORK

IS: Interest Set to Enhance Flow Transmission in Named-Data Networking

JIANG Xiaoke, BI Jun
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 65-71
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Named-data Networking (NDN) is a promising future Internet architecture, which introduces some evolutionary elements into layer-3, e.g., consumer-driven communication, soft state on data forwarding plane and hop-by-hop traffic control. And those elements ensure data holders to solely return the requested data within the lifetime of the request, instead of pushing data whenever needed and whatever it is. Despite the dispute on the advantages and their prices, this pattern requires data consumers to keep sending requests at the right moments for continuous data transmission, resulting in significant forwarding cost and sophisticated application design. In this paper, we propose Interest Set (IS) mechanism, which compresses a set of similar Interests into one request, and maintains a relative long-term data returning path with soft state and continuous feedback from upstream. In this way, IS relaxes the above requirement, and scales NDN data forwarding by reducing forwarded requests and soft states that are needed to retrieve a given set of data.
       INFORMATION-CENTRIC NETWORK

On-line Popularity Monitoring Method Based on Bloom Filters and Hash tables for Differentiated Traffic

ZHANG Guo, ZHANG Jianhui, WANG Binqiang, ZHANG Zhen
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 72-86
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Towards line speed and accurateness on-line content popularity monitoring on Content Centric Networking (CCN) routers, we propose a three-stage scheme based on Bloom filters and hash tables for differentiated traffic. At the first stage, we decide whether to deliver the content to the next stage depending on traffic types. The second stage consisting of Standard Bloom filters (SBF) and Counting Bloom filters (CBF) identifies the popular content. Meanwhile, a scalable sliding time window based monitoring scheme for different traffic types is proposed to implement frequent and real-time updates by the change of popularities. Hash tables according with sliding window are used to record the popularity at the third stage. Simulation results reveal that this method reaches a 40Gbps processing speed at lower error probability with less memory, and it is more sensitive to the change of popularity. Additionally, the architecture which can be implemented in CCN router is flexible and scalable.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

A Self-Adaptive Programming Mechanism for Reconfigurable Parsing and Processing

DUAN Tong, SHEN Juan, WANG Peng, LIU Shiran
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 87-97
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In this paper, we present a self-adaptive programming mechanism (SAP) that targets programming hardware devices of reconfigurable parsing and processing. The SAP programming system locates in software of network data plane and has three features: (1) programmable packet parsing: the packet header format can be customized and new header type can be added; (2) reconfigurable packet processing: the match fields to be handled in each match table can be specified; (3) function-adaptive control: any function control systems can determine the packet processing flow independently without the need of knowing the specifics of the underlying hardware. Finally, we implement a prototype on NetFPGA-10G together with two representative function control systems (router and OpenFlow switch) to demonstrate how SAP works. We believe the data plane of reconfigurable parsing and processing will lead to future switches that provide greater flexibility, and unlock the potential of network function innovation.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

Performance Evaluation for SDN Deployment: an Approach Based on Stochastic Network Calculus

LIN Changting, WU Chunming, HUANG Min, WEN Zhenyu, ZHENG Qiuhua
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 98-106
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The OpenFlow implementations (SDNs) have been deployed increasingly on varieties of networks in research institutions as well as commercial institutions. To develop an OpenFlow implementation, it is required to understand the performance of the network. A few benchmark tools (e.g., Cbench and OFlops) can be used to measure the network performance, while these tools take considerable time to simulate traffic behaviors and generate the required results, therefore extending the development time. In this paper, we present an analytical model, which is based on stochastic network calculus theory, for evaluating the performance of switch to controller. The previous studies show that stochastic network calculus can provide realistic emulation of real network traffic behaviors. Our model is evaluated by using both simulation tool and realistic testbed. The results show the stochastic network calculus based analysis model can realistically measure the network performance of the end-to-end properties between controller and switch.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

APPOW: An Advanced Routing Protocol Based on Parameters Optimization in the Weighted Mobile Social Network

HUO Yan, QI Jinghao, LI Zhen, JING Tao
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 107-115
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Due to the increasing number of wireless mobile devices, the possibility of mobile communications without infrastructure becomes a reality. The Decentralized Mobile Social Network (DMSN) is a paradigm where nodes can move freely and organize themselves arbitrarily. Routing in these environments is difficult for the reason of the rapid changes of the social relationship graph’s topology. Meanwhile, the social ties among nodes change overtime. Therefore, an efficient data forwarding mechanism should be considered over the temporal weighted relationship graph. In this paper, an Advanced routing Protocol based on Parameters Optimization in the Weighted mobile social network (APPOW) is proposed to improve the delivery success ratio and reduce the cost of exchanging information. APPOW combines the normalized relative weights of three local social metrics, i.e., LinkRank, similarity and contact strength, to select the next relay node. The weights of the three metrics are derived by pair-wise learning algorithm. The result shows that APPOW outperforms the state-of-the-art SimBet Routing in delivering message and significantly reduces the average hops. Additionally, the delivery performance of APPOW is close to Epidemic Routing but without message duplications.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

User Selection Algorithms for Lowering Cross-Tier Interference in Heterogeneous Network

CHE Linlin , HAO Conghui , HAN Dongsheng *, CHEN Zhixiong
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 116-123
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To lower the cross-tier inter-cell interference(ICI) between macrocell and microcell ,three user selection algorithms for the heterogeneous network were proposed in this paper, assuming full knowledge of channel-state information at the transmitter. Algorithm 1 chooses microcell users whose interference channel matrix is parallel to that of a known user and targets at increasing user SINR. Algorithm 2 takes effect of chordal distance-channel norm balance on the system into account and predetermines the available user set from which it can choose service users. With comprehensive considerations to effect of interference signal and useful signal on system, Algorithm 3 set a weighting function as the objective function of user selection. Simulation results demonstrated that all three proposed algorithms could achieve user diversity gain while lowering cross-tier interference.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

Adaptive Power Control for Mutual Interference Avoidance in Industrial Internet-of-Things

ZHENG Tao, QIN Yajuan, ZHANG Hongke, KUO Syyen
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 124-131
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With the vigorous development of the Internet of Things and 5G technology, such as machine-to-machine and device-to-device, all kinds of data transmission including environmental monitoring and equipment control strengthens the key role of wireless sensor networks in the large-scale wireless communication system. However, especially in the complex industrial wireless applications, the low utilization efficiency of the limited wireless radio resource enhances the coexistence problem between heterogeneous networks. In this paper, from the severe mutual interference point of view, a mathematical model regarding cumulative interferences in the industrial wireless sensor networks is described. Then, from the perspective of mutual interference avoidance, an adaptive power control scheme is proposed in order to handle the normal communication needs on both the primary link and the secondary link. At last, nonlinear programming is taken to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Some typical analyses are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme on optimizing the tradeoff between the system throughput and energy consumption. Especially, the energy-efficiency of the novel scheme for Industrial Internet of Things is also analysed. Results show that the proposed power control is efficient. The throughput could be enhanced and the energy consumption could be reduced with the guarantee of mutual interference avoidance.
       NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION

MAVIN: A MAC Address Coding Based Virtual

ZHANG Yuanyuan, Xu Mingwei, Yang Yuan, Wang Ning
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 132-145
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Network virtualization is a promising way for network innovation. Efforts have been made to develop virtual network platforms for both network researches and business applications. In this paper, we aim to provide a new solution to address the shortcomings of existing solutions. We propose MAVIN - a MAC address coding based virtual network platform. MAVIN avoids changing the nodes of the current Internet, and can provide high performance virtual networks with user-specified network protocols and link performance parameters. Comparing to existing network virtualization schemes, MAVIN can achieve layer-2 virtualization which has no extra forwarding overhead. We implement the virtual router prototype of MAVIN and establish a real MAVIN platform to evaluate its performance. Evaluation results show that MAVIN can support high performance virtual networks with excellent scalability.
       NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION

Using the Cooperative Game for Service Placement of Virtual Network Functions

XIONG Gang, HU Yuxiang, WANG Weiming, WANG Lingqiang
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 146-157
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To address the issues that middleboxes as a fundamental part of today’s networks are facing, Network Function Virtualization (NFV) has been recently proposed, which in essence asserts to migrate hardware-based middleboxes into software-based virtualized function entities. Due to the demands of virtual services placement in NFV network environment, this paper models the service amount placement problem involving with the resources allocation as a cooperative game and proposes the placement policy by Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS). Specifically, we first introduce the system overview and apply the rigorous cooperative game-theoretic guide to build the mathematical model, which can give consideration to both the responding efficiency of service requirements and the allocation fairness. Then a distributed algorithm corresponding to NBS is designed to achieve predictable network performance for virtual instances placement. Finally, with simulations under various scenarios, the results show that our placement approach can achieve high utilization of network through the analysis of evaluation metrics namely the satisfaction degree and fairness index. With the suitable demand amount of services, the average values of two metrics can reach above 90%. And by tuning the base placement, our solution can enable operators to flexibly balance the tradeoff between satisfaction and fairness of resources sharing in service platforms.
       NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION

A Centralized Algorithm for Assigning MDC Video Application in Virtual Network

ZHU Kai, WU Chunming, ZHOU Boyang, CHEN Fei, WANG Haoxue
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 158-166
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Providing services on demand is a major contributing factor to drive the increasingly development of the software defined network. However, it should supply all the current popular applications before it really attains widespread development. Multiple Description Coding (MDC) video applications, as a popular application in the current network, should be reasonably supported in this novel network virtualization environment. In this paper, we address this issue to assign MDC video application into virtual networks with an efficient centralized algorithm (CAMDV). Since this problem is an NP-hard problem, we design an algorithm that can effectively balance the user satisfaction and network resource cost. Previous work just builds a global multicast tree for each description to connect all the destination nodes by breadth-first search strategy or shortest path tree algorithm. But those methods could not achieve an optimal balance or a high-level user satisfaction. By introducing the hierarchical clustering scheme, our algorithm decomposes the whole mapping procedure into multicast tree construction and multipath description distribution. A serial of simulation experiments show that our centralized algorithm could achieve a better performance in balancing the user satisfaction and average mapping cost in comparison with its rivals.
       NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION

An Approach for Network Function Combination Based on Least Busy Placement Algorithm

XIE Lijun, JIANG Yiming, WANG Binqiang, XIONG Gang, CHENG Guozhen
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 167-176
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Recently, integrating Software-defined networking (SDN) and network functions virtualization (NFV) are proposed to address the issue that difficulty and cost of hardware-based and proprietary middleboxes management. However, it lacks of a framework that orchestrates network functions to service chain in the network cooperatively. In this paper, we propose a function combination framework that can dynamically adapt the network based on the integration NFV and SDN. There are two main contributions in this paper. First, the function combination framework based on the integration of SDN and NFV is proposed to address the function combination issue, including the architecture of Service Deliver Network, the port types representing traffic directions and the explanation of terms. Second, we formulate the issue of load balance of function combination as the model minimizing the standard deviations of all servers’ loads and satisfying the demand of performance and limit of resource. The least busy placement algorithm is introduced to approach optimal solution of the problem. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can combine functions in an efficient and scalable way and ensure the load balance of the network.
       NETWORK SECURITY

Providing Customized Security Based on Network Function Composition and Reconfiguration

HU Yuxiang, LI Yufeng, XING Chiqiang, LIAO Jianxin
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 177-189
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Real-time multimedia sharing in Consumer-centric Multimedia Network (CMN) requires usability anywhere, anytime and from any device. However, CMNs are usually located or implemented on application layer, which makes CMNs subjected to their fixed substrate security framework. A fundamental diversifying attribute for the customized security experiences of CMNs is pressing. This paper proposes a programmable network structure which is named Service Processing Chain (SPC) based on network function combination. The SPC is established by the ordinal combination of network functions in substrate switches dynamically, and therefore constructs a special channel for each CMN with required security. The construction and reconfiguration algorithms of SPC are also discussed in this paper. Evaluations and implementation show that above approaches are effective in providing multilevel security with flexibility and expansibility. It is believed that the SPC could provide customized security service and drive participative real-time multimedia sharing for CMNs.
       NETWORK SECURITY

Research and Implementation of the SDN Resources Transaction Process Based on Trust Mechanism

ZHUGE Bin, PENG Dan, BU Xiaobo, WANG Weiming
China Communications, 2016, 13(1z): 190-207
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SDN network as new network architecture, can address a range of issues of the current internet effectively, this paper in the view of SDN network resources’ allocation, for decreasing resources waste and achieving a reasonable distribution of SDN resources, come up with a suitable resource price negotiation algorithm based on trust mechanism in SDN network environment. According to the characteristics of the trust mechanism, simulating on the unit utility and equivalent price of SDN network resources in three aspects (remove individual malicious nodes, remove most malicious nodes and remove all malicious nodes), through the above simulation, combined trust mechanism with MCDAM algorithm, can form a weighing system which pricing and trust comprehensive competitive, so that the whole SDN trading environment become safer and more stable. So trust mechanism as the patch of SDN pricing negotiation algorithm. Finally, propose the planned trading model based on trust mechanism as a management method of SDN trading.
 
 
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