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2016 Vol. 13, No. 4
Published: 13 April 2016

CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING
COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN
NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION
SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS
PROTOCOLS AND ALGORITHMS
STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES
 
   
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       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Partially Overlapped Channels- and Flow-Based End-to-End Channel Assignment for Multi-Radio Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Networks

WANG Jihong, SHI Wenxiao
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 1-13
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Capacity reduction is a major problem faced by wireless mesh networks. An efficient way to alleviate this problem is proper channel assignment. Current end-to-end channel assignment schemes usually focus on the case where channels in distinct frequency bands are assigned to mesh access and backbone, but actually backbone network and access network can use the same IEEE 802.11 technology. Besides, these channel assignment schemes only utilize orthogonal channels to perform channel assignment, and the resulting network interference dramatically degrades network performance. Moreover, Internet-oriented traffic is considered only, and peer-to-peer traffic is omitted, or vice versa. The traffic type does not match the practical network. In this paper, we explore how to exploit partially overlapped channels to perform end-to-end channel assignment in order to achieve effective end-to-end flow transmissions. The proposed flow-based end-to-end channel assignment schemes can conquer the limitations aforementioned. Simulations reveal that load-aware channel assignment can be applied to networks with stable traffic load, and it can achieve near-optimal performance; Traffic-irrelevant channel assignment is suitable for networks with frequent change of traffic load, and it can achieve good balance between performance and overhead. Also, partially overlapped channels’ capability of improving network performance is situation-dependent, they should be used carefully.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Multiple-Symbol Interleaved RS Codes and Two-Pass Decoding Algorithm

WANG Zhongfeng, Ahmad Chini, Mehdi T. Kilani, ZHOU Jun
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 14-19
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For communication systems with heavy burst noise, an optimal Forward Error Correction (FEC) scheme is expected to have a large burst error correction capability while simultaneously owning moderate random error correction capability. This letter presents a new FEC scheme based on multiple-symbol interleaved Reed-Solomon codes and an associated two-pass decoding algorithm. It is shown that the proposed multi-symbol interleaved Reed-Solomon scheme can achieve nearly twice as much as the burst error correction capability of conventional single-symbol interleaved Reed-Solomon codes with the same code length and code rate.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Robust Transceiver Optimization for Multi-Antenna Multi-Carrier Multi-Hop Communications

QU Fengzhong, ZHANG Zhujun, WU Zhihui, WU Yezhou
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 20-29
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Multi-hop communications are becoming more and more important due to its flexibility and potential to improve communication coverage and quality. In this paper, we discuss the robust transceiver optimization for multi-hop amplify-and-forward multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. In general, we consider a three-dimensional robust beamforming design, i.e., frequency, spatial and relay domains. With inevitable channel estimation errors, in our work both weighted mean square error (MSE) minimization and minimizing maximum MSE are adopted as the performance metrics to design robust transceivers. Following the Bayesian robust philosophy, a robust transceiver design is proposed. The design is based on convex optimization, and the involved optimization variables are optimized alternatively. The proposed transceiver optimization algorithms can be applied to the network with arbitrary hops, arbitrary antennas and arbitrary subcarriers. At the end of this paper, the performance advantages of the propose design have been assessed by the numerical results.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

An Advanced Spectrum Allocation Algorithm for The Across-Cell D2D Communication in LTE Network with Higher Throughput

LI Yun, ZHANG Le, TAN Xin, CAO Bin
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 30-27
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In the hybrid LTE cellular network with D2D (Device-to-Device) communication, D2D communication technologies can improve the spectral efficiency significantly. However, the D2D users have to reutilize the spectrum which is allocated to the cellular users. Therefore, the co-channel interference will be more complicated in the case of cross-cell D2D communications. In this article, a novel spectrum allocation algorithm for inter-cell D2D communication considering the traffic load is proposed. The traffic load can be balanced by the proposed algorithm. Meanwhile D2D users can multiplex the spectrum allocated to a number of cellular users with a certain percentage to meet the requirements of QoS of D2D communications and reduce the interference to cellular users. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can meet the needs of D2D users, balance the traffic load and improve the overall throughput of the system.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN

Downlink CoMP Resource Allocation Based on Limited Backhaul Capacity

LI Zhuoming, LIU Yuqi, ZHANG Yu, WU Wei
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 38-48
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Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) transmission is put forward in the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) system to improve both average and cell-edge throughput. In this paper, downlink CoMP (DL-CoMP) resource allocation scheme based on limited backhaul capacity is designed to take a tradeoff between system throughput and fairness. Resource allocation of proportional fairness based on querying table is proposed. It updates RB allocation matrix when center cell has completed resource allocation and delivers the matrix to adjacent cells for their own RB allocation. Furthermore, Water-Filling algorithm based on adaptive water level (AWF) is used for power allocation to boost system fairness. In this paper, performance of downlink CoMP based on limited backhaul capacity and single-point transmission is contrasted, and results indicate that CoMP dramatically enhances system throughput and spectral efficiency. Moreover, AWF power allocation scheme obtains higher system fairness than conventional Water-Filling (WF) algorithm, although it gets slightly lower system throughput. Finally, this paper discussed that the system performance is partially affected by the percentage of CoMP resource.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN

Integrated Wireless Communication System Using MANET for Remote Pastoral Areas of Tibet

HUANG Cao, ZHOU Qing, ZHANG Dongchen
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 49-57
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To reduce the network deployment cost and provide voice, message and low rate data services in remote pastoral areas of Tibet effectively, an integrated wireless communication system utilizing MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Network) is proposed. The sparse mobile devices, assisted with the solar-powered multi-functional standing stations mainly on networking maintenance and routing arrangement, self-organize into a MANET. The topology of the standing stations is designed for networking robust and to simplify the routing method and energy strategy. Then in the OMNeT++ (Objective Modular Network Test bed in C++) simulation, the energy consumption is analysis while adjusting routing with the different energy status of the standing stations. The result shows that the standing stations should adjust routing as well as control the mobile devices’ activity level according to the energy states of the standing stations and their adjacent mobile devices.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN

A Novel Trellis Coded Overlapping Amplitude and Pulse Position Modulation Scheme for Gamma-Gamma Channel Free-Space Optical Communication

WANG Kaimin, LIU Bo, ZHANG Lijia, ZHANG Qi, TIAN Qinghua, XIN Xiangjun
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 58-69
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A novel trellis coded-4×8 overlapping amplitude and pulse position modulation (TC-4×8AOPPM) scheme is proposed to enhance bit error rate (BER) performance of free-space optical communication (FSO) system. In addition, an uncoded AOPPM referential scheme is also designed. The schemes manage to decrease BER by designing gamma-gamma (GG) channel applicable decoding and demodulation methods. Simulation results of 8, 16 and 64-state TC-4×8AOPPM show 2.5-3.3 dB SNR gain against traditional TC-4×8AOPPM scheme respectively. Thus significant BER performance improvement is achieved and the reliability of the FSO system is also enhanced.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

The Research on E-mail Users’ Behavior of Participating in Subjects Based on Social Network Analysis

ZHANG Lejun, ZHOU Tongxin, Qi Zhixin, GUO Lin, XU Li
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 70-80
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The e-mail network is a type of social network. This study analyzes user behavior in e-mail subject participation in organizations by using social network analysis. First, the Enron dataset and the position-related information of an employee are introduced, and methods for deletion of false data are presented. Next, the three-layer model (User, Subject, Keyword) is proposed for analysis of user behavior. Then, the proposed keyword selection algorithm based on a greedy approach, and the influence and propagation of an e-mail subject are defined. Finally, the e-mail user behavior is analyzed for the Enron organization. This study has considerable significance in subject recommendation and character recognition.
       PROTOCOLS AND ALGORITHMS

Constrained Weighted Least Squares Location Algorithm Using Received Signal Strength Measurements

LI Zeyuan
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 81-88
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Determine the location of a target has gained considerable interest over the past few years. The Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements and Differential RSS (DRSS) measurements can be converted to distance or distance ratio estimates for constructing a set of linear equations. Based on these linear equations, a constrained weighted least Squares (CWLS) algorithm for target localization is derived. In addition, an iterative technique based on Newton’s method is utilized to give a solution. The covariance and bias of the CWLS algorithm is derived using perturbation analysis. Simulation shows that the proposed estimator achieves better performance than existing algorithms with reasonable complexity.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

A Unified Method Based on SPA and Timing Attacks on the Improved RSA

JIA Fan, XIE Di
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 89-96
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Nowadays the modular multiplications in many kinds of smartcards are utilized Montgomery’s algorithm modular multiplier, so traditional SPA to RSA becomes invalid. An improved attack method is proposed based on SPA which just depends on the fact that there exist some subtle differences in each loop during the operation of cd mod n. At same time, compared with the traditional SPA, it doesn’t need to select the clear text or some known message. Using this method, attacks can easy to discover the mode of RSA implementation and extract the bits of decryption key just based on a few collected traces. From the real attack test on several main kinds of smartcard, the private keys of RSA stored inside can be analyzed successfully.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Differentially Private Spatial Decompositions for Geospatial Point Data

WANG Jun, LIU Shubo, LI Yongkai, CAO Hui, LIU Mengjun
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 97-107
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Technological advancements in data analysis and data releasing have put forward higher security requirements, such as privacy guarantee and strictly provable security, this new area of research is called differential privacy. As for geospatial point data, the exiting methods use the tree structure to split the data space to enhance the data utility and usually adopt uniform budgeting method. Different from this, we propose a novel non-uniform allocation scheme for privacy budget which is a parameter to specify the degree of privacy guarantee. Firstly, the spatial data is indexed by quadtree, then, different privacy budget is allocated to each layer of quadtree using Fibonacci series features, and we designate this budgeting method as Fibonacci allocation. Experimental results show that Fibonacci allocation is significantly more accurate in data queries than the state-of-the-art methods under the same privacy guarantee level and fits for arbitrary range queries. Furthermore, data utility can be improved by post-processing and threshold determination.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

A Wireless Intrusion Alerts Clustering Method for Mobile Internet

CHEN Guanlin, WU Ying
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 108-118
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With the rapid development of mobile Internet, people pay increasing attention to the wireless network security problem. But due to the specificity of the wireless network, at present it is rare to see the research of wireless intrusion alerts clustering method for mobile Internet. This paper proposes a Wireless Intrusion Alert Clustering Method (WIACM) based on the information of the mobile terminal. The method includes alert formatting, alert reduction and alert classification. By introducing key information of the mobile terminal device, this method aggregates the original alerts into hyper alerts. The experimental results show that WIACM would be appropriate for real attack scenarios of mobile Internet, and reduce the amount of alerts with more accuracy of alert analysis.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Distributed Information Flow Verification for Secure Service Composition in Smart Sensor Network

XI Ning, SUN Cong, MA Jianfeng, CHEN Xiaofeng, SHEN Yulong
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 119-130
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Accelerate processor, efficient software and pervasive connections provide sensor nodes with more powerful computation and storage ability, which can offer various services to user. Based on these atomic services, different sensor nodes can cooperate and compose with each other to complete more complicated tasks for user. However, because of the regional characteristic of sensor nodes, merging data with different sensitivities become a primary requirement to the composite services, and information flow security should be intensively considered during service composition. In order to mitigate the great cost caused by the complexity of modeling and the heavy load of single-node verification to the energy-limited sensor node, in this paper, we propose a new distributed verification framework to enforce information flow security on composite services of smart sensor network. We analyze the information flows in composite services and specify security constraints for each service participant. Then we propose an algorithm over the distributed verification framework involving each sensor node to participate in the composite service verification based on the security constraints. The experimental results indicate that our approach can reduce the cost of verification and provide a better load balance.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Resource Allocation for Network Security Risk Assessment: A Non-Cooperative Differential Game Based Approach

XU Haitao, LIN Ruijie
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 131-135
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In this paper, we propose a non-cooperative differential game theory based resource allocation approach for the network security risk assessment. For the risk assessment, the resource will be used for risk assess, including response cost and response negative cost. The whole assessment process is considered as a differential game for optimal resource control. The proposed scheme can be obtained through the Nash Equilibrium. It is proved that the game theory based algorithm is applicable and the optimal resource level can be achieved based on the proposed algorithm.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

FACOR: Flexible Access Control with Outsourceable Revocation in Mobile Clouds

ZHOU Shungan, DU Ruiying, CHEN Jing, SHEN Jian, DENG Hua, ZHANG Huanguo
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 136-150
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Access control is a key mechanism to secure outsourced data in mobile clouds. Some existing solutions are proposed to enforce flexible access control on outsourced data or reduce the computations performed by mobile devices. However, less attention has been paid to the efficiency of revocation when there are mobile devices needed to be revoked. In this paper, we put forward a new solution, referred to as flexible access control with outsourceable revocation (FACOR) for mobile clouds. The FACOR applies the attribute-based encryption to enable flexible access control on outsourced data, and allows mobile users to outsource the time-consuming encryption and decryption computations to proxies, with only requiring attributes authorization to be fully trusted. As an advantageous feature, FACOR provides an outsourceable revocation for mobile users to reduce the complicated attribute-based revocation operations. The security analysis shows that our FACOR scheme achieves data security against collusion attacks and unauthorized accesses from revoked users. Both theoretical and experimental results confirm that our proposed scheme greatly reliefs the mobile devices from heavy encryption and decryption computations, as well as the complicated revocation of access rights in mobile clouds.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

Super-Resolution for Face Image with an Improved K-NN Search Strategy

QU Shenming, HU Ruimin, CHEN Shihong, JIANG Junjun, WANG Zhongyuan, ZHANG Maosheng
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 151-161
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Recently, neighbor embedding based face super-resolution (SR) methods have shown the ability for achieving high-quality face images, those methods are based on the assumption that the same neighborhoods are preserved in both low-resolution (LR) training set and high-resolution (HR) training set. However, due to the “one-to-many” mapping between the LR image and HR ones in practice, the neighborhood relationship of the LR patch in LR space is quite different with that of the HR counterpart, that is to say the neighborhood relationship obtained is not true. In this paper, we explore a novel and effective re-identified K-nearest neighbor (RIKNN) method to search neighbors of LR patch. Compared with other methods, our method uses the geometrical information of LR manifold and HR manifold simultaneously. In particular, it searches K-NN of LR patch in the LR space and refines the searching results by re-identifying in the HR space, thus giving rise to accurate K-NN and improved performance. A statistical analysis of the influence of the training set size and nearest neighbor number is given, experimental results on some public face databases show the superiority of our proposed scheme over state-of-the-art face hallucination approaches in terms of subjective and objective results as well as computational complexity.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

AMTS: Adaptive Multi-Objective Task Scheduling Strategy in Cloud Computing

HE Hua, XU Guangquan, PANG Shanchen, ZHAO Zenghua
China Communications, 2016, 13(4): 162-171
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Task scheduling in cloud computing environments is a multi-objective optimization problem, which is NP hard. It is also a challenging problem to find an appropriate trade-off among resource utilization, energy consumption and Quality of Service (QoS) requirements under the changing environment and diverse tasks. Considering both processing time and transmission time, a PSO-based Adaptive Multi-objective Task Scheduling (AMTS) Strategy is proposed in this paper. First, the task scheduling problem is formulated. Then, a task scheduling policy is advanced to get the optimal resource utilization, task completion time, average cost and average energy consumption. In order to maintain the particle diversity, the adaptive acceleration coefficient is adopted. Experimental results show that the improved PSO algorithm can obtain quasi-optimal solutions for the cloud task scheduling problem.
 
 
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