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2016 Vol. 13, No. 3
Published: 13 March 2016

CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING
NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION
SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS
REVIEW PAPER
FEATURE TOPIC: NEW ERA SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK
COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGE
INDUSTRY DYNAMICS
 
   
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       FEATURE TOPIC: NEW ERA SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK

Optimizing the Resource Utilization of Datacenter Networks with OpenFlow

LIU Bo, CHEN Ming, HU Chao, HU Hui, XU Bo
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 1-11
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Decreasing the flow completion time (FCT) and increasing the throughput are two fundamental targets in datacenter networks (DCNs), but current mechanisms mostly focus on one of the problems. In this paper, we propose OFMPC, an OpenFlow based MultiPath Cooperation framework, to decrease FCT and increase the network throughput. OFMPC partitions the end-to-end transmission paths into two classes, which are low delay paths (LDPs) and high throughput paths (HTPs), respectively. Short flows are assigned to LDPs to avoid long queueing delay, while long flows are assigned to HTPs to guarantee their throughput. Meanwhile, a dynamic scheduling mechanism is presented to improve network efficiency. We evaluate OFMPC in Mininet emulator and a testbed, and the experimental results show that OFMPC can effectively decrease FCT. Besides, OFMPC also increases the throughput up to more than 84% of bisection bandwidth.
       FEATURE TOPIC: NEW ERA SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK

SWN: An SDN Based Framework for Carrier Grade Wi-Fi Networks

LEI Tao, WEN Xiangming, LU Zhaoming, ZHAO Xing, LI Yangchun, ZHANG Biao
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 12-26
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With the rapid growth of mobile data traffic and vast traffic offloaded from cellular network, Wi-Fi has been considered as an essential component to cope with the tremendous growth of mobile data traffic. Although operators have deployed a lot of carrier grade Wi-Fi networks, but there are still a multitude of arrears for nowadays Wi-Fi networks, such as supporting seamless handover between APs, automatic network access and unified authentication, etc. In this paper, we propose an SDN based carrier grade Wi-Fi network framework, namely SWN. The key conceptual contribution of SWN is a principled refactoring of Wi-Fi networks into control and data planes. The control plane has a centralized global view of the whole network, can perceive the underlying network state by network situation awareness (NAS) technique, and bundles the perceived information and network management operations into northbound Application Programming Interface (API) for upper applications. In the data plane, we construct software access point (SAP) to abstract the connection between user equipment (UE) and access point (AP). Network operators can design network applications by utilizing these APIs and the SAP abstraction to configure and manage the whole network, which makes carrier grade Wi-Fi networks more flexible, user-friendly, and scalable.
       FEATURE TOPIC: NEW ERA SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK

Towards SDN Based Queuing Delay Estimation

MA Haiyan, YAN Jinyao, Panagiotis Georgopoulos, Bernhard Plattner
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 27-36
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As one of QoS (Quality of Service) metrics, delay is critical important to delay sensitive applications, such as interactive video, network game and online surgery. In this paper, we exploit SDN (Software Defined Networking) advantages to solve delay QoS problem. Our work mainly focuses on SDN based queuing delay estimation with real traffic and end-to-end delay control. First, we propose a queuing estimation model and extended it for end-to-end delay of the whole path. It is proved to be feasible and accurate with experimental results in SDN environment. Second, in order to demonstrate the use of our proposed model, we also implement an end-to-end delay control application in SDN. It fulfills specific delay QoS requirements by dynamically switching flows to a suitable queue based on estimation results and delay requirements.
       FEATURE TOPIC: NEW ERA SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK

A High-Elasticity Router Architecture with Software Data Plane and Flow Switching Plane Separation

GAO Xianming, WANG Baosheng, ZHANG Xiaozhe, MA Shicong
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 37-52
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Routers have traditionally been architected as two elements: forwarding plane and control plane through ForCES or other protocols. Each forwarding plane aggregates a fixed amount of computing, memory, and network interface resources to forward packets. Unfortunately, the tight coupling of packet-processing tasks with network interfaces has severely restricted service innovation and hardware upgrade. In this context, we explore the insightful prospect of functional separation in forwarding plane to propose a next-generation router architecture, which, if realized, can provide promises both for various packet-processing tasks and for flexible deployment while solving concerns related to the above problems. Thus, we put forward an alternative construction in which functional resources within a forwarding plane are disaggregated. A forwarding plane is instead separated into two planes: software data plane (SDP) and flow switching plane (FSP), and each plane can be viewed as a collection of "building blocks". SDP is responsible for packet-processing tasks without its expansibility restricted with the amount and kinds of network interfaces. FSP is in charge of packet receiving/transmitting tasks and can incrementally add switching elements, such as general switches, or even specialized switches, to provide network interfaces for SDP. Besides, our proposed router architecture uses network fabrics to achieve the best connectivity among building blocks, which can support for network topology reconfiguration within one device. At last, we make an experiment on our platform in terms of bandwidth utilization rate, configuration delay, system throughput and execution time.
       FEATURE TOPIC: NEW ERA SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK

SDICN: A Software Defined Deployable Framework of Information Centric Networking

WANG Xiulei, CHEN Ming, HU Chao, WENG Xi, XING Changyou
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 53-65
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the Information-Centric Networking (ICN) paradigm is proved to have the advantages of decreasing data delivery latency, enhancing user mobility, etc. However, current implementations of ICN require changing the infrastructure of Internet, which hinders its deployment and development. Meanwhile, Software Defined Networking (SDN) emerges as a viable solution to facilitate the deployment of new network paradigm without disrupting production traffic by decoupling the control plane from data forwarding plane. In this paper, the essential properties which reflect ICN working principles are summarized, and a framework called SDICN is designed in accordance to the SDN philosophy. The algorithmic frameworks of SDICN which can satisfy the essential properties are designed based on the programmability and virtualization functions of SDN. Based on OpenFlow and data center technology, a prototype of SDICN is implemented. By comparing the performance with the CCNx, the SDICN is proved to be feasibility and availability.
       REVIEW PAPER

A Survey of Ranging Algorithms and Localization Schemes in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

QU Fengzhong, WANG Shiyuan, WU Zhihui, LIU Zubin
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 66-81
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Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UASN) has attracted significant attention because of its great influence on ocean exploration and monitoring. On account of the unique characteristics of underwater environment, localization, as one of the fundamental tasks in UASNs, is a more challenging work than in terrestrial sensor networks. A survey of the ranging algorithms and the network architectures varied with different applications in UASNs is provided in this paper. Algorithms used to estimate the coordinates of the UASNs nodes are classified into two categories: range-based and range-free. In addition, we analyze the architectures of UASNs based on different applications, and compare their performances from the aspects of communication cost, accuracy, coverage and so on. Open research issues which would affect the accuracy of localization are also discussed, including MAC protocols, sound speed and time synchronization.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Resource Allocation for Physical Layer Security in Heterogeneous Network with Hidden Eavesdropper

GONG Shiqi, XING Chengwen, FEI Zesong, KUANG Jingming
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 82-95
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The tremendous performance gain of heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is at the cost of complicated resource allocation. Considering information security, the resource allocation for HetNets becomes much more challenging and this is the focus of this paper. In this paper, the eavesdropper is hidden from the macro base stations. To relax the unpractical assumption on the channel state information on eavesdropper, a localization based algorithm is first given. Then a joint resource allocation algorithm is proposed in our work, which simultaneously considers physical layer security, cross-tier interference and joint optimization of power and subcarriers under fairness requirements. It is revealed in our work that the considered optimization problem can be efficiently solved relying on convex optimization theory and the Lagrangian dual decomposition method is exploited to solve the considered problem effectively. Moreover, in each iteration the closed-form optimal resource allocation solutions can be obtained based on the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions. Finally, the simulation results are given to show the performance advantages of the proposed algorithm.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Interference Robust Channel Hopping Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks

LIU Ye, JIANG Fulong, LIU Hao, WU Jianhui, HU Chen, ZHANG Meng
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 96-104
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Due to the shared nature of the wireless medium, the performance of wireless sensor network is often limited by both internal interference and external interference. The internal interference is that simultaneous traffic activity by neighboring nodes in the same network, while the external interference is from wireless transmissions by other types of devices, such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth nodes. In this paper, we present two channel hopping algorithms for multichannel, single-radio wireless sensor networks. The first algorithm achieves collision-free transmission environment while do not introduce extra control overhead. The second algorithm, in addition to reducing internal interference effects, reduces the external interference effects from Wi-Fi devices. Simulation results show that both of them significantly improve performance in wireless sensor network.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

A Study on The Multi-Antenna Geometrical Depolarization Channel Modeling

SUN Xuehong, YANG Xiaoli, ZENG Zhimin, ZHANG Cheng, BAI Bing
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 105-114
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The traditional geometrical depolarization model that single transmitter to single receiver provides a simple method of polarization channel modeling. It can obtain the geometrical depolarization effect of each path if known the antenna configuration, the polarization field radiation pattern and the spatial distribution of scatters. With the development of communication technology, information transmission spectrum is more and more scarce. The original model provides only a single channel polarization state, so the information will be limited that the polarization state carries in the polarization modulation. The research is so significance that how to carries polarization modulation information by using multi-antenna polarization state. However, the present study shows that have no depolarization effect model for multi-antenna systems. In this paper, we propose a multi-antenna geometrical depolarization model. On the basis of a single antenna to calculate the depolarization effect of the model, and through simulation to analysis the main factors that influence the depolarization effect. This article provides a multi-antenna geometrical depolarization channel modeling that can applied to large-scale array antenna, and to some extent increase the speed of information transmission.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Performance Analysis of Mixed Amplify-and-Forward and Decode-and-Forward Protocol in Underlay Cognitive Networks

Tran Trung Duy, Hyung Yun Kong
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 115-126
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In this paper, we propose and evaluate outage performance of a mixed amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) relaying protocol in underlay cognitive radio. Different from the conventional AF and DF protocols, in the proposed protocol, a secondary source attempts to transmit its signal to a secondary destination with help of two secondary relays. One secondary relay always operates in AF mode, while the remaining one always operates in DF mode. Moreover, we also propose a relay selection method, which relies on the decoding status at the DF relay. For performance evaluation and comparison, we derive the exact and approximate closed-form expressions of the outage probability for the proposed protocol over Rayleigh fading channel. Finally, we run Monte Carlo simulations to verify the derivations. Results presented that the proposed protocol obtains a diversity order of three and the outage performance of our scheme is between that of the conventional underlay DF protocol and that of the conventional underlay AF protocol.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGE

Comprehensive Analysis of Caching Performance under Probabilistic Traffic Patterns for Content Centric Networking

Dabin Kim, Young-Bae Ko, Sung-Hwa Lim
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 127-136
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The phenomenon of data explosion represents a severe challenge for the upcoming big data era. However, the current Internet architecture is insufficient for dealing with a huge amount of traffic owing to an increase in redundant content transmission and the end-point-based communication model. Information-centric networking (ICN) is a paradigm for the future Internet that can be utilized to resolve the data explosion problem. In this paper, we focus on content-centric networking (CCN), one of the key candidate ICN architectures. CCN has been studied in various network environments with the aim of relieving network and server burden, especially in name-based forwarding and in-network caching functionalities. This paper studies the effect of several caching strategies in the CCN domain from the perspective of network and server overhead. Thus, we comprehensively analyze the in-network caching performance of CCN under several popular cache replication methods (i.e., cache placement). We evaluate the performance with respect to well-known Internet traffic patterns that follow certain probabilistic distributions, such as the Zipf/Mandelbrot-Zipf distributions, and flash-crowds. For the experiments, we developed an OPNET-based CCN simulator with a realistic Internet-like topology.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGE

Integrating Tabu Search in Particle Swarm Optimization for the Frequency Assignment Problem

Houssem Eddine Hadji, Malika Babes
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 137-155
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In this paper, we address one of the issues in the frequency assignment problem for cellular mobile networks in which we intend to minimize the interference levels when assigning frequencies from a limited frequency spectrum. In order to satisfy the increasing demand in such cellular mobile networks, we use a hybrid approach consisting of a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) combined with a Tabu Search (TS) algorithm. This approach takes both advantages of PSO efficiency in global optimization and TS in avoiding the premature convergence that would lead PSO to stagnate in a local minimum. Moreover, we propose a new efficient, simple, and inexpensive model for storing and evaluating solution's assignment. The purpose of this model reduces the solution's storage volume as well as the computations required to evaluate these solutions in comparison with the classical model. Our simulation results on the most known benchmarking instances prove the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm in comparison with previous related works in terms of convergence rate, the number of iterations, the solution storage volume and the running time required to converge to the optimal solution.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

Fog Computing Dynamic Load Balancing Mechanism Based on Graph Repartitioning

SONG Ningning, GONG Chao, AN Xingshuo, ZHAN Qiang
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 156-164
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Because of cloud computing's high degree of polymerization calculation mode, it can't give full play to the resources of the edge device such as computing, storage, etc. Fog computing can improve the resource utilization efficiency of the edge device, and solve the problem about service computing of the delay-sensitive applications. This paper researches on the framework of the fog computing, and adopts Cloud Atomization Technology to turn physical nodes in different levels into virtual machine nodes. On this basis, this paper uses the graph partitioning theory to build the fog computing's load balancing algorithm based on dynamic graph partitioning. The simulation results show that the framework of the fog computing after Cloud Atomization can build the system network flexibly, and dynamic load balancing mechanism can effectively configure system resources as well as reducing the consumption of node migration brought by system changes.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

On Effective Virtual Networks Interconnection

Huang Tao, Huang Chengyuan, Ma Ningning
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 165-173
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The network services today require extremely agile and mobile, however, the traditional IP infrastructures are so rigid that cannot fit services well. A way should be put forward to automate the network to improve responsiveness to change. SDN and network virtualization (NV) are two hottest approaches to make networking more automated and scalable to support virtualized and cloud environments. Network virtualization combines hardware and software network resources and network functionality into a single virtual network. SDN is created to simplify traffic management and achieve operational efficiencies by establish and exercising central control over packet forwarding. In this paper, we focus on the situation where SDN controller needs to connect two virtual networks temporarily. We put forward three algorithms to try to make this connection more effective and evaluate these three algorithms.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

Key Exchange Protocol Based on Tensor Decomposition Problem

Mao Shaowu, Zhang Huanguo, Wu Wanqing, Zhang Pei, Song Jun, Liu Jinhui
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 174-183
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The hardness of tensor decomposition problem has many achievements, but limited applications in cryptography, and the tensor decomposition problem has been considered to have the potential to resist quantum computing. In this paper, we firstly proposed a new variant of tensor decomposition problem, then two one-way functions are proposed based on the hard problem. Secondly we propose a key exchange protocol based on the one-way functions, then the security analysis, efficiency, recommended parameters and etc. are also given. The analyses show that our scheme has the following characteristics: easy to implement in software and hardware, security can be reduced to hard problems, and it has the potential to resist quantum computing. Besides the new key exchange can be as an alternative comparing with other classical key protocols.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Hash Tree Based Trustworthiness Verification Mechanism in Virtual Environment

ZHU Shuaishuai, HAN Yiliang, YANG Xiaoyuan, WEI Yuechuan
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 184-192
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The trustworthiness of virtual machines is a big security issue in cloud computing. In this paper, we aimed at designing a practical trustworthiness mechanism in virtual environment. With the assist of a third certificate agent, the cloud user generates a trust base and extends it to its VMs. For each service running on the VM, a hash value is generated from all the necessary modules, and these hash values are organized and maintained with a specially designed hash tree whose root is extended from the user's trust base. Before the VM loads a service, the hash tree is verified from the coordinated hash value to check the trustworthiness of the service.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Challenges and Solutions of Information Security Issues in the Age of Big Data

YANG Mengke, ZHOU Xiaoguang, ZENG Jianqiu, XU Jianjian
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 193-202
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Big data has been taken as a Chinese national strategy in order to satisfy the developments of the social and economic requirements and the development of new information technology. The prosperity of big data brings not only convenience to people's daily life and more opportunities to enterprises, but more challenges with information security as well. This paper has a research on new types and features of information security issues in the age of big data, and puts forward the solutions for the above issues: build up the big data security management platform, set up the establishment of information security system and implement relevant laws and regulations.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Privacy-preserving Distributed Location Proof Generating System

LIU Mengjun, LIU Shubo, ZHANG Rui, Li Yongkai, WANG Jun, CAO Hui
China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 203-218
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The rapid development of location-based service (LBS) drives one special kind of LBS, in which the service provider verifies user location before providing services. In distributed location proof generating schemes, preventing users from colluding with each other to create fake location proofs and protecting user's location privacy at the same time, are the main technical challenges to bring this kind of LBS into practical. Existing solutions tackle these challenges with low collusion-detecting efficiency and defected collusion-detecting method. We proposed two novel location proof generating schemes, which inversely utilized a secure secret-sharing scheme and a pseudonym scheme to settle these shortcomings. Our proposed solution resists and detects user collusion attacks in a more efficient and correct way. Meanwhile, we achieve a higher level of location privacy than that of previous work. The correctness and efficiency of our proposed solution is testified by intensive security analysis, performance analysis, as well as experiments and simulation results.
       INDUSTRY DYNAMICS

Basic Telecom Service Situation in China(2015)

China Communications, 2016, 13(3): 219-219
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