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China Communications
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2016 Vol. 13, No. 2
Published: 13 February 2016

Guest Editorial
CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING
NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION
SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS
ICT MANAGEMENT
NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
INFORMATION-CENTRIC NETWORK
NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY
NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION
NETWORK SECURITY
 
   
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       Guest Editorial

Joint User Association and Resource Allocation for Self-Backhaul Ultra-Dense Networks

LIU Yanping, FANG Xuming
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 1-10
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In order to meet the exponentially increasing demand on mobile data traffic, self-backhaul ultra-dense networks (UDNs) combined with millimeter wave (mmWave) communications are expected to provide high spatial multiplexing gain and wide bandwidths for multi-gigabit peak data rates. In self-backhaul UDNs, how to make the radio access rates of small cells match their backhaul rates by user association and how to dynamically allocate bandwidth for the access links and backhaul links to balance two-hop link resources are two key problems on improving the overall throughputs. Based on this, a joint scheme of user association and resource allocation is proposed in self-backhaul ultra-dense networks. Because of the combinatorial and nonconvex features of the original optimization problem, it has been divided into two subproblems. Firstly, to make the radio access rates of small base stations match their backhaul rates and maximize sum access rates per Hz of all small cells, a proportional constraint is introduced, and immune optimization algorithm (IOA) is adopted to optimize the association indicator variables and the boresight angles of between users and base stations. Then, the optimal backhaul and access bandwidths are calculated by differentiating the general expression of overall throughput. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme increases the overall throughputs significantly compared to the traditional minimum-distance based association scheme.
       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

A Summary of the Large-Scale Access Convergence Network Structure

LAN Julong, ZHANG Xiaohui, SHEN Juan, HU Yuxiang, WANG Xiang, MAO Zhenshan, WANG Lingqiang, LIANG Dong
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 1-5
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Under the requirement of everything over IP, network service shows the following characteristics: (1) network service increases its richness; (2) broadband streaming media becomes the mainstream. To achieve unified multi-service bearing in the IP network, the large-scale access convergence network architecture is proposed. This flat access convergence structure with ultra-small hops, which shortens the service transmission path, reduces the complexity of the edge of the network, and achieves IP strong waist model with the integration of computation, storage and transmission. The key technologies are also introduced in this paper, including end-to-end performance guarantee for real time interactive services, fog storing mechanism, and built-in safety transmission with integration of aggregation and control.
       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

Is Minimizing Flow Completion Time the Optimal Way in Meeting Flow’s Deadline in Datacenter Networks

XU Yakun, LUO Hongbin, REN Fei
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 6-15
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In modern datacenters, the most common method to solve the network latency problem is to minimize flow completion time during the transmission process. Following the soft real-time nature, the optimization of transport latency is relaxed to meet a flow’s deadline in deadline-sensitive services. However, none of existing deadline-sensitive protocols consider deadline as a constraint condition of transmission. They can only simplify the objective of meeting a flow’s deadline as a deadline-aware mechanism by assigning a higher priority for tight-deadline constrained flows to finish the transmission as soon as possible, which results in an unsatisfactory effect in the condition of high fan-in degree. It drives us to take a step back and rethink whether minimizing flow completion time is the optimal way in meeting flow’s deadline. In this paper, we focus on the design of a soft real-time transport protocol with deadline constraint in datacenters and present a flow-based deadline scheduling scheme for datacenter networks (FBDS). FBDS makes the unilateral deadline-aware flow transmission with priority transform into a compound centralized single-machine deadline-based flow scheduling decision. In addition, FBDS blocks the flow sets and postpones some flows with extra time until their deadlines to make room for the new arriving flows in order to improve the deadline meeting rate. Our simulation results on flow completion time and deadline meeting rate reveal the potential of FBDS in terms of a considerable deadline-sensitive transport protocol for deadline-sensitive interactive services.
       Guest Editorial

User Association in Heterogeneous Network with Dual Connectivity and Constrained Backhaul

WU Zhouyun, XIE Weiliang, YANG Fengyi, BI Qi
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 11-20
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A novel user association model for heterogeneous network (HetNet) with dual connectivity (DC) and constrained backhaul is proposed in this paper, where not only the best combination of serving macro cell and small cell for each user to associate is selected but also the optimal traffic split between the macro cell and small cell is determined to enhance both radio resource efficiency and backhaul capacity utilization. To solve this optimization problem, an intuitive algorithm based on iteratively solving two sub-problems is proposed. One sub-problem is a binary integer programming problem and a corresponding greedy algorithm is proposed, while the other sub-problem is a simple linear programming problem and can be easily solved. Numerical results show that the proposed model and algorithm can achieve better radio resource efficiency and backhaul capacity utilization compared with user association in HetNet without DC, which validate the capacity enhancement potentials of radio resource coordination in HetNet with DC.
       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

ForSA — A New Software Defined Network Architecture Based on ForCES

LI Chuanhuang, CEN Lijie, GONG Liang, WANG Weiming, JIN Rong, LAN Julong
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 16-30
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In recent years, SDN (Software Defined Network) as a new network architecture has become the hot research point. Meanwhile, the well-known OpenFlow-based SDN got a lot of attention. But it can’t provide a flexible and effective network resource description method. As an open programmable technology, ForCES (Forwarding and Control Element Separation) has also been concerned. However, ForCES is confined within a single network node and cannot be applied to the entire network. This paper proposes a new architecture — ForSA (ForCES-based SDN architecture). The architecture is added a configuration layer based on the traditional SDN architecture, which solves the problem that the northbound interface is not clear between the application layer and the control layer in the SDN architecture. ForSA also implements the compatibility within various forwarding devices in the forwarding layer.
       Guest Editorial

Enhanced Power Allocation Scheme in Ultra-Dense Small Cell Network

GAO Yuehong, CHENG Lei, ZHANG Xin, ZHU Yajun, ZHANG Yunfei
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 21-29
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A feasible design of ultra-dense Small cell network involves an effective solution to the interference coordination especially in cell edge. In this paper, we propose a channel state and interference aware power allocation scheme (PAG) as an enhanced solution to improve the system performance, especially for the cell-edge users. Cournot model in Non-cooperative game is employed for power adjustment in Small cell clusters to increase cell-edge users’ throughput by considering the power limitation and interference coordination. Additionally, we take iterative Water Filling scheme as a comparison to clarify that the PAG scheme has struck a favorable balance between system efficiency and fairness. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme contributes to the enhancement of edge users’ throughput and cells’ coverage. Moreover, the scheme is observed to show a stronger adaptability in denser Small cell networks.
       Guest Editorial

Ultra Dense Network: Challenges, Enabling Technologies and New Trends

HAO Peng, YAN Xiao, Yu-Ngok Ruyue, YUAN Yifei
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 30-40
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5G sets an ambitious goal of increasing the capacity per area of current 4G network by 1000 fold. Due to the high splitting gain of dense small cells, ultra dense network (UDN) is widely considered as a key component in achieving this goal. In this paper, we outline the main challenges that come with dense cell deployment, including interference, mobility, power consumption and backhaul. Technologies designed to tackle these challenges in long term evolution system (LTE) and their deficiencies in UDN context are also analyzed. To combat these challenges more efficiently, a series of technologies are introduced along with some of our initial research results. Moreover, the trends of user-centric and peer-to-peer design in UDN are also elaborated.
       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

ApplianceBricks: A Scalable Network Appliance Architecture for Network Functions Virtualization

MA Shicong, WANG Baosheng, ZHANG Xiaozhe, GAO Xianming
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 32-42
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Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is an attempt to help operators more effectively manage their networks by implementing traditional network functions embedded in specialized hardware platforms in term of virtualized software instances. But, existing novel network appliances designed for NFV infrastructure are always architected on a general-purpose x86 server, which makes the performance of network functions limited by the hosted single server. To address this challenge, we propose ApplianceBricks, a novel NFV-enable network appliance architecture that is used to explore the way of consolidating multiple physical network functions into a clustered network appliance, which is able to improve the processing capability of NFV-enabled network appliances.
       Channel characterization and Modeling

Independent Component Analysis Based Blind Adaptive Interference Reduction and Symbol Recovery for OFDM Systems

LUO Zhongqiang, ZHU Lidong, LI Chengjie
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 41-54
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To overcome the inter-carrier interference (ICI) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems subject to unknown carrier frequency offset (CFO) and multipath, this paper develops a blind adaptive interference suppression scheme based on independent component analysis (ICA). Taking into account statistical independence of subcarriers’ signals of OFDM, the signal recovery mechanism is investigated to achieve the goal of blind equalization. The received OFDM signals can be considered as the mixed observation signals. The effect of CFO and multipath corresponds to the mixing matrix in the problem of blind source separation (BSS) framework. In this paper, the ICA-based OFDM system model is built, and the proposed ICA-based detector is exploited to extract source signals from the observation of a received mixture based on the assumption of statistical independence between the sources. The blind separation technique can increase spectral efficiency and provide robustness performance against erroneous parameter estimation problem. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that compared with the conventional pilot-based scheme, the improved performance of OFDM systems is obtained by the proposed ICA-based detection technique
       NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

A Dynamic Protocol Stack Structure for Diversified QoS Requirements in Ad Hoc Network

DONG Fang, Li Ou, RAN Xiaomin, JIN Feicai
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 43-53
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A dynamic protocol stack (DPS) for ad hoc networks, together with a protocol stack construction scheme that is modeled as a multi-constrained knapsack problem is proposed. Compared to the traditional static protocol stack, DPS operates in a dynamic and adaptive manner and is scalable to network condition changes. In addition, a protocol construction algorithm is proposed to dynamically construct of the protocol stack each network node. Simulation results show that, the processing and forwarding performance of our scheme is close to 1 Gb/s, and the performance of our algorithm is close to that of the classical algorithms with much lower complexity.
       INFORMATION-CENTRIC NETWORK

Little for More: An Active Discovery Strategy for Content Routing in ICN

PAN Kai, LI Hui, LIU Weiyang, LI Dagang
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 54-64
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While receiving a certain packet with unknown destination, a router either simply drops it or sends queries around as a remedy. Dropping it sacrifices transmission stability, but sending queries may cause too much overload. Such situation can be seen more frequently in Information-Centric Networking (ICN) since it has a larger namespace for routing destinations. In this paper, we propose the neighboring chunk aware discovery (NCAD), an active discovery strategy for content routing. NCAD can reduce the cost of resolving unknown contents, which is not yet considered by the conventional routing mechanism. The idea behind NCAD is to ask the nodes to report back more possession information about the queried content in prediction of later use. To this end, we de-sign NCAD with several different considerations, and balance the tradeoff between effectiveness in conjunction with the overhead to achieve optima on the whole. Extensive experiments are conducted on a small typical topology and a large real-world Internet AS-level topology. Experimental results show an overall supe-riority of NCAD in terms of both effectiveness and overhead.
       Channel characterization and Modeling

Cross-Layer Framework for Fine-Grained Channel Access in Next Generation High-Density WiFi Networks

ZHAO Haitao, ZHANG Shaojie, Emiliano Garcia-Palacios
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 55-57
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Densely deployed WiFi networks will play a crucial role in providing the capacity for next generation mobile internet. However, due to increasing interference, overlapped channels in WiFi networks and throughput efficiency degradation, densely deployed WiFi networks is not a guarantee to obtain higher throughput. An emergent challenge is how to efficiently utilize scarce spectrum resources, by matching physical layer resources to traffic demand. In this aspect, access control allocation strategies play a pivotal role but remain too coarse-grained. As a solution, this research proposes a flexible framework for fine-grained channel width adaptation and multi-channel access in WiFi networks. This approach, named SFCA (Sub-carrier Fine-grained Channel Access), adopts DOFDM (Discontinuous Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) at the PHY layer. It allocates the frequency resource with a sub-carrier granularity, which facilitates the channel width adaptation for multi-channel access and thus brings more flexibility and higher frequency efficiency. The MAC layer uses a frequency-time domain backoff scheme, which combines the popular time-domain BEB scheme with a frequency-domain backoff to decrease access collision, resulting in higher access probability for the contending nodes. SFCA is compared with FICA (an established access scheme) showing significant outperformance. Finally we present results for next generation 802.11ac WiFi networks.
       INFORMATION-CENTRIC NETWORK

IS: Interest Set to Enhance Flow Transmission in Named-Data Networking

JIANG Xiaoke, BI Jun
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 65-71
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Named-data Networking (NDN) is a promising future Internet architecture, which introduces some evolutionary elements into layer-3, e.g., consumer-driven communication, soft state on data forwarding plane and hop-by-hop traffic control. And those elements ensure data holders to solely return the requested data within the lifetime of the request, instead of pushing data whenever needed and whatever it is. Despite the dispute on the advantages and their prices, this pattern requires data consumers to keep sending requests at the right moments for continuous data transmission, resulting in significant forwarding cost and sophisticated application design. In this paper, we propose Interest Set (IS) mechanism, which compresses a set of similar Interests into one request, and maintains a relative long-term data returning path with soft state and continuous feedback from upstream. In this way, IS relaxes the above requirement, and scales NDN data forwarding by reducing forwarded requests and soft states that are needed to retrieve a given set of data.
       Commnuications System Design

A QoS-Aware Packet Scheduling Mechanism in Cognitive Radio Networks for Smart Grid Applications

XU Siya, WEI Lei, LIU Zhu, GUO Shaoyong, QIU Xuesong, MENG Luoming
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 68-78
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Cognitive radio sensor network is applied to facilitate network monitoring and management, and achieves high spectrum efficiencies in smart grid. However, the conventional traffic scheduling mechanisms are hard to provide guaranteed quality of service for the secondary users. It is because that they ignore the influence of diverse transition requirements in heterogeneous traffic. Therefore, a novel QoS-aware packet scheduling mechanism is proposed to improve transmission quality for secondary users. In this mechanism, a QoS-based prioritization model is established to address data classification firstly. And then, channel quality and the effect of channel switch are integrated into priority-based packet scheduling mechanism. At last, the simulation is implemented with MATLAB and OPNET. The results show that the proposed scheduling mechanism improves the transmission quality of high-priority secondary users and increase the whole system utilization by 10%.
       INFORMATION-CENTRIC NETWORK

On-line Popularity Monitoring Method Based on Bloom Filters and Hash tables for Differentiated Traffic

ZHANG Guo, ZHANG Jianhui, WANG Binqiang, ZHANG Zhen
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 72-86
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Towards line speed and accurateness on-line content popularity monitoring on Content Centric Networking (CCN) routers, we propose a three-stage scheme based on Bloom filters and hash tables for differentiated traffic. At the first stage, we decide whether to deliver the content to the next stage depending on traffic types. The second stage consisting of Standard Bloom filters (SBF) and Counting Bloom filters (CBF) identifies the popular content. Meanwhile, a scalable sliding time window based monitoring scheme for different traffic types is proposed to implement frequent and real-time updates by the change of popularities. Hash tables according with sliding window are used to record the popularity at the third stage. Simulation results reveal that this method reaches a 40Gbps processing speed at lower error probability with less memory, and it is more sensitive to the change of popularity. Additionally, the architecture which can be implemented in CCN router is flexible and scalable.
       Commnuications System Design

A Probabilistic Rating Prediction and Explanation Inference Model for Recommender Systems

WANG Hanshi, FU Qiujie, LIU Lizhen, SONG Wei
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 79-94
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Collaborative Filtering (CF) is a leading approach to build recommender systems which has gained considerable development and popularity. A predominant approach to CF is rating prediction recommender algorithm, aiming to predict a user’s rating for those items which were not rated yet by the user. However, with the increasing number of items and users, thedata is sparse.It is difficult to detectlatent closely relation among the items or users for predicting the user behaviors. In this paper,we enhance the rating prediction approach leading to substantial improvement of prediction accuracy by categorizing according to the genres of movies. Then the probabilities that users are interested in the genres are computed to integrate the prediction of each genre cluster. A novel probabilistic approach based on the sentiment analysis of the user reviews is also proposed to give intuitional explanations of why an item is recommended.To test the novel recommendation approach, a new corpus of user reviews on movies obtained from the Internet Movies Database(IMDB) has been generated. Experimental results show that the proposed framework is effective and achieves a better prediction performance.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

A Self-Adaptive Programming Mechanism for Reconfigurable Parsing and Processing

DUAN Tong, SHEN Juan, WANG Peng, LIU Shiran
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 87-97
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In this paper, we present a self-adaptive programming mechanism (SAP) that targets programming hardware devices of reconfigurable parsing and processing. The SAP programming system locates in software of network data plane and has three features: (1) programmable packet parsing: the packet header format can be customized and new header type can be added; (2) reconfigurable packet processing: the match fields to be handled in each match table can be specified; (3) function-adaptive control: any function control systems can determine the packet processing flow independently without the need of knowing the specifics of the underlying hardware. Finally, we implement a prototype on NetFPGA-10G together with two representative function control systems (router and OpenFlow switch) to demonstrate how SAP works. We believe the data plane of reconfigurable parsing and processing will lead to future switches that provide greater flexibility, and unlock the potential of network function innovation.
       Network Technology And Application

Maximum Data Collection Rate in Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sinks

GAO Demin, LIN Haifeng, LIU Yunfei, WU Guoxin
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 95-108
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In rechargeable wireless sensor networks, a sensor cannot be always beneficial to conserve energy when a network can harvest excessive energy from the environment due to its energy replenished continually and limited energy storage capacity. Therefore, surplus energy of a node can be utilized for strengthening packet delivery efficiency and improving data collection rate. In this work, we propose an algorithm to compute an upper data generation rate that maximizes it as an optimization problem for a network with multiple sinks, which is formulated as a linear programming problem. Subsequently, a dual problem by introducing Lagrange multipliers is constructed, and subgradient algorithms are used to solve it in a distributed manner. The resulting algorithms are guaranteed to converge to an optimal data generation rate, which are illustrated by an example in which an optimum data generation rate is computed for a network of randomly distributed nodes. Through extensive simulation and experiments, we demonstrate our algorithm is efficient to maximize data collection rate in rechargeable wireless sensor networks.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

Performance Evaluation for SDN Deployment: an Approach Based on Stochastic Network Calculus

LIN Changting, WU Chunming, HUANG Min, WEN Zhenyu, ZHENG Qiuhua
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 98-106
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The OpenFlow implementations (SDNs) have been deployed increasingly on varieties of networks in research institutions as well as commercial institutions. To develop an OpenFlow implementation, it is required to understand the performance of the network. A few benchmark tools (e.g., Cbench and OFlops) can be used to measure the network performance, while these tools take considerable time to simulate traffic behaviors and generate the required results, therefore extending the development time. In this paper, we present an analytical model, which is based on stochastic network calculus theory, for evaluating the performance of switch to controller. The previous studies show that stochastic network calculus can provide realistic emulation of real network traffic behaviors. Our model is evaluated by using both simulation tool and realistic testbed. The results show the stochastic network calculus based analysis model can realistically measure the network performance of the end-to-end properties between controller and switch.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

APPOW: An Advanced Routing Protocol Based on Parameters Optimization in the Weighted Mobile Social Network

HUO Yan, QI Jinghao, LI Zhen, JING Tao
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 107-115
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Due to the increasing number of wireless mobile devices, the possibility of mobile communications without infrastructure becomes a reality. The Decentralized Mobile Social Network (DMSN) is a paradigm where nodes can move freely and organize themselves arbitrarily. Routing in these environments is difficult for the reason of the rapid changes of the social relationship graph’s topology. Meanwhile, the social ties among nodes change overtime. Therefore, an efficient data forwarding mechanism should be considered over the temporal weighted relationship graph. In this paper, an Advanced routing Protocol based on Parameters Optimization in the Weighted mobile social network (APPOW) is proposed to improve the delivery success ratio and reduce the cost of exchanging information. APPOW combines the normalized relative weights of three local social metrics, i.e., LinkRank, similarity and contact strength, to select the next relay node. The weights of the three metrics are derived by pair-wise learning algorithm. The result shows that APPOW outperforms the state-of-the-art SimBet Routing in delivering message and significantly reduces the average hops. Additionally, the delivery performance of APPOW is close to Epidemic Routing but without message duplications.
       Network Technology And Application

Research on Services Modeling in LTE Networks

LIU Qi, SHI Yameng, LI Fuchang, FAN Bin
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 109-120
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Service modeling offers fundamental guidance to the construction and operation of mobile telecommunication networks. As the domestic LTE networks have been deployed massively, the refined LTE services model needs to be established urgently. In this paper, we firstly extract characteristic parameters of services from statistical data in 3G networks, especially in time, space and user dimension. Secondly, the development trends of LTE services are analyzed. And the refined LTE service model is established. Finally, prediction results of LTE service development in China is given, which could provide efficient support for networks’ optimization and evolution.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

User Selection Algorithms for Lowering Cross-Tier Interference in Heterogeneous Network

CHE Linlin , HAO Conghui , HAN Dongsheng *, CHEN Zhixiong
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 116-123
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To lower the cross-tier inter-cell interference(ICI) between macrocell and microcell ,three user selection algorithms for the heterogeneous network were proposed in this paper, assuming full knowledge of channel-state information at the transmitter. Algorithm 1 chooses microcell users whose interference channel matrix is parallel to that of a known user and targets at increasing user SINR. Algorithm 2 takes effect of chordal distance-channel norm balance on the system into account and predetermines the available user set from which it can choose service users. With comprehensive considerations to effect of interference signal and useful signal on system, Algorithm 3 set a weighting function as the objective function of user selection. Simulation results demonstrated that all three proposed algorithms could achieve user diversity gain while lowering cross-tier interference.
       Network Technology And Application

A Secure-Efficient Data Collection Algorithm Based on Self-Adaptive Sensing Model in Mobile Internet of Vehicles

LIANG Wei, RUAN Zhiqiang, TANG Mingdong, LI Peng
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 121-129
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Existing research on data collection using wireless mobile vehicle network emphasizes the reliable delivery of information. However, other performance requirements such as life cycle of nodes, stability and security are not set as primary design objectives. This makes data collection ability of vehicular nodes in real application environment inferior. By considering the features of nodes in wireless IoV, such as large scales of deployment, volatility and low time delay, an efficient data collection algorithm is proposed for mobile vehicle network environment. An adaptive sensing model is designed to establish vehicular data collection protocol. The protocol adopts group management in model communication. The vehicular sensing node in group can adjust network sensing chain according to sensing distance threshold with surrounding nodes. It will dynamically choose a combination of network sensing chains on basis of remaining energy and location characteristics of surrounding nodes. In addition, secure data collection between sensing nodes is undertaken as well. The simulation and experiments show that the vehicular node can realize secure and real-time data collection. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is superior in vehicular network life cycle, power consumption and reliability of data collection by comparing to other algorithms.
       NETWORK EVOLUTION AND PROGRAMMABILITY

Adaptive Power Control for Mutual Interference Avoidance in Industrial Internet-of-Things

ZHENG Tao, QIN Yajuan, ZHANG Hongke, KUO Syyen
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 124-131
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With the vigorous development of the Internet of Things and 5G technology, such as machine-to-machine and device-to-device, all kinds of data transmission including environmental monitoring and equipment control strengthens the key role of wireless sensor networks in the large-scale wireless communication system. However, especially in the complex industrial wireless applications, the low utilization efficiency of the limited wireless radio resource enhances the coexistence problem between heterogeneous networks. In this paper, from the severe mutual interference point of view, a mathematical model regarding cumulative interferences in the industrial wireless sensor networks is described. Then, from the perspective of mutual interference avoidance, an adaptive power control scheme is proposed in order to handle the normal communication needs on both the primary link and the secondary link. At last, nonlinear programming is taken to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Some typical analyses are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme on optimizing the tradeoff between the system throughput and energy consumption. Especially, the energy-efficiency of the novel scheme for Industrial Internet of Things is also analysed. Results show that the proposed power control is efficient. The throughput could be enhanced and the energy consumption could be reduced with the guarantee of mutual interference avoidance.
       Network Technology And Application

A Dynamic Load Balancing Method of Cloud-Center Based on SDN

WANG Yong, TAO Xiaoling*, HE Qian, KUANG Yuwen
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 130-137
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In order to achieve dynamic load balancing based on data flow level, in this paper, we apply SDN technology to the cloud data center, and propose a dynamic load balancing method of cloud center based on SDN. The approach of using the SDN technology in the current task scheduling flexibility, accomplish real-time monitoring of the service node flow and load condition by the OpenFlow protocol. When the load of system is imbalanced, the controller can allocate globally network resources. What’s more, by using dynamic correction, the load of the system is not obvious tilt in the long run. The results of simulation show that this approach can realize and ensure that the load will not tilt over a long period of time, and improve the system throughput.
       NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION

MAVIN: A MAC Address Coding Based Virtual

ZHANG Yuanyuan, Xu Mingwei, Yang Yuan, Wang Ning
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 132-145
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Network virtualization is a promising way for network innovation. Efforts have been made to develop virtual network platforms for both network researches and business applications. In this paper, we aim to provide a new solution to address the shortcomings of existing solutions. We propose MAVIN - a MAC address coding based virtual network platform. MAVIN avoids changing the nodes of the current Internet, and can provide high performance virtual networks with user-specified network protocols and link performance parameters. Comparing to existing network virtualization schemes, MAVIN can achieve layer-2 virtualization which has no extra forwarding overhead. We implement the virtual router prototype of MAVIN and establish a real MAVIN platform to evaluate its performance. Evaluation results show that MAVIN can support high performance virtual networks with excellent scalability.
       Security Schemes And Solutions

MP-WFRFT and Constellation Scrambling Based Physical Layer Security System

FANG Xiaojie, SHA Xuejun, LI Yue
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 138-145
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In this paper, a multiple parameters weighted fractional Fourier transform (MP-WFRFT) and constellation scrambling (CS) method based physical layer (PHY) security system is proposed. The proposed scheme is executed by two steps. In the first step, MP-WFRFT, implemented as the constellation beguiling (CB) method, is applied to change the signal’s identity. In the second step the additional pseudo random phase information, regarded as the encryption key, is attached to the original signal to enhance the security. Typically, the pseudo random phase information can be removed effectively by the legitimate receiver. In contrast to the cryptography based encryption algorithms and the conventional PHY secrecy techniques, the main contribution of the proposed scheme is concentrated on the variation in signal’s characteristics. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can prevent the exchanging signal from eavesdroppers’ classification or inception. Moreover, the proposed scheme can guarantee the BER performance at a tolerate increasing in computational complexity for the legitimate receivers.
       Security Schemes And Solutions

Attribute-Based Access Control for Multi-Authority Systems with Constant Size Ciphertext in Cloud Computing

CHEN Yanli, SONG Lingling, YANG Geng
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 146-162
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In most existing CP-ABE schemes, there is only one authority in the system and all the public keys and private keys are issued by this authority, which incurs ciphertext size and computation costs in the encryption and decryption operations that depend at least linearly on the number of attributes involved in the access policy. We propose an efficient multi-authority CP-ABE scheme in which the authorities need not interact to generate public information during the system initialization phase. Our scheme has constant ciphertext length and a constant number of pairing computations. Our scheme can be proven CPA-secure in random oracle model under the decision q-BDHE assumption. When user’s attributes revocation occurs, the scheme transfers most re-encryption work to the cloud service provider, reducing the data owner’s computational cost on the premise of security. Finally the analysis and simulation result show that the schemes proposed in this thesis ensure the privacy and secure access of sensitive data stored in the cloud server, and be able to cope with the dynamic changes of users’ access privileges in large-scale systems. Besides, the multi-authority ABE eliminates the key escrow problem, achieves the length of ciphertext optimization and enhances the efficiency of the encryption and decryption operations.
       NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION

Using the Cooperative Game for Service Placement of Virtual Network Functions

XIONG Gang, HU Yuxiang, WANG Weiming, WANG Lingqiang
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 146-157
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To address the issues that middleboxes as a fundamental part of today’s networks are facing, Network Function Virtualization (NFV) has been recently proposed, which in essence asserts to migrate hardware-based middleboxes into software-based virtualized function entities. Due to the demands of virtual services placement in NFV network environment, this paper models the service amount placement problem involving with the resources allocation as a cooperative game and proposes the placement policy by Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS). Specifically, we first introduce the system overview and apply the rigorous cooperative game-theoretic guide to build the mathematical model, which can give consideration to both the responding efficiency of service requirements and the allocation fairness. Then a distributed algorithm corresponding to NBS is designed to achieve predictable network performance for virtual instances placement. Finally, with simulations under various scenarios, the results show that our placement approach can achieve high utilization of network through the analysis of evaluation metrics namely the satisfaction degree and fairness index. With the suitable demand amount of services, the average values of two metrics can reach above 90%. And by tuning the base placement, our solution can enable operators to flexibly balance the tradeoff between satisfaction and fairness of resources sharing in service platforms.
       NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION

A Centralized Algorithm for Assigning MDC Video Application in Virtual Network

ZHU Kai, WU Chunming, ZHOU Boyang, CHEN Fei, WANG Haoxue
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 158-166
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Providing services on demand is a major contributing factor to drive the increasingly development of the software defined network. However, it should supply all the current popular applications before it really attains widespread development. Multiple Description Coding (MDC) video applications, as a popular application in the current network, should be reasonably supported in this novel network virtualization environment. In this paper, we address this issue to assign MDC video application into virtual networks with an efficient centralized algorithm (CAMDV). Since this problem is an NP-hard problem, we design an algorithm that can effectively balance the user satisfaction and network resource cost. Previous work just builds a global multicast tree for each description to connect all the destination nodes by breadth-first search strategy or shortest path tree algorithm. But those methods could not achieve an optimal balance or a high-level user satisfaction. By introducing the hierarchical clustering scheme, our algorithm decomposes the whole mapping procedure into multicast tree construction and multipath description distribution. A serial of simulation experiments show that our centralized algorithm could achieve a better performance in balancing the user satisfaction and average mapping cost in comparison with its rivals.
       Security Schemes And Solutions

SAFE: a Scalable Filter-Based Packet Filtering Scheme

LU Ning, HU Wenhao
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 163-177
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Recently, Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks have become the mainstream threat to the Internet service availability. The filter-based packet filtering is a key technology to defend against such attacks. Relying on the filtering location, the proposed schemes can be grouped into Victim-end Filtering and Source-end Filtering. The first scheme uses a single filtering router to block the attack flows near the victim, but does not take the factor that the filters are scarce resource into account, which causes the huge loss of legitimate flows; considering each router could contribute a few filters, the other extreme scheme pushes the filtering location back into each attack source so as to obtain ample filters, but this may incur the severe network transmission delay due to the abused filtering routers. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a scalable filter-based packet filtering scheme to balance the number of filtering routers and the available filters. Through emulating DoS scenarios based on the synthetic and real-world Internet topologies and further implementing the various filter-based packet filtering schemes on them, the results show that our scheme just uses fewer filtering routers to cut off all attack flows while minimizing the loss of legitimate flows.
       NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION

An Approach for Network Function Combination Based on Least Busy Placement Algorithm

XIE Lijun, JIANG Yiming, WANG Binqiang, XIONG Gang, CHENG Guozhen
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 167-176
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Recently, integrating Software-defined networking (SDN) and network functions virtualization (NFV) are proposed to address the issue that difficulty and cost of hardware-based and proprietary middleboxes management. However, it lacks of a framework that orchestrates network functions to service chain in the network cooperatively. In this paper, we propose a function combination framework that can dynamically adapt the network based on the integration NFV and SDN. There are two main contributions in this paper. First, the function combination framework based on the integration of SDN and NFV is proposed to address the function combination issue, including the architecture of Service Deliver Network, the port types representing traffic directions and the explanation of terms. Second, we formulate the issue of load balance of function combination as the model minimizing the standard deviations of all servers’ loads and satisfying the demand of performance and limit of resource. The least busy placement algorithm is introduced to approach optimal solution of the problem. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can combine functions in an efficient and scalable way and ensure the load balance of the network.
       NETWORK SECURITY

Providing Customized Security Based on Network Function Composition and Reconfiguration

HU Yuxiang, LI Yufeng, XING Chiqiang, LIAO Jianxin
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 177-189
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Real-time multimedia sharing in Consumer-centric Multimedia Network (CMN) requires usability anywhere, anytime and from any device. However, CMNs are usually located or implemented on application layer, which makes CMNs subjected to their fixed substrate security framework. A fundamental diversifying attribute for the customized security experiences of CMNs is pressing. This paper proposes a programmable network structure which is named Service Processing Chain (SPC) based on network function combination. The SPC is established by the ordinal combination of network functions in substrate switches dynamically, and therefore constructs a special channel for each CMN with required security. The construction and reconfiguration algorithms of SPC are also discussed in this paper. Evaluations and implementation show that above approaches are effective in providing multilevel security with flexibility and expansibility. It is believed that the SPC could provide customized security service and drive participative real-time multimedia sharing for CMNs.
       Security Schemes And Solutions

SDSA: A Framework of a Software-Defined Security Architecture

LIU Yanbing, LU Xingyu, JIAN Yi, XIAO Yunpeng*
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 178-188
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The fact that the security facilities within a system are closely coupled and the security facilities between systems are unconnected results in an isolated protection structure for systems, and gives rise to a serious challenge to system security integrations and system controls. Also, the need for diversified services and flexible extensions of network security asks for more considerations and contribu¬tions from the perspective of software engineering in the process of designing and constructing security systems. Based on the essence of the virtualization technique and the idea of software-defined networks, we in this paper propose a novel software-defined security architecture for systems. By abstracting the traditional security facilities and techniques, the proposed security architecture provides a new, simple, effective, and programmable framework in which security operations and security controls can be decoupled, and thereby reduces the software module sizes, decreases the intensity of software deve¬lopments, and improves the security extensibility of systems.
       Ict Management

Decentralized Mobile SNS Architecture and Its Personal Information Management Mechanism

LIU Zhihan, YUAN Quan, LIU Lu
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 189-199
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Mobile SNS is one of the most popular topics of mobile Internet. In order to fulfill the user demand for self-maintained independent social network and ensure the privacy of their personal information and resources, the paper proposes system architecture of decentralized mobile SNS.In the temporary scenarios, the system makes use of the existent specification of FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend) to describe users’ personal information and act as a certificate to be identified by SNS sites. Ticket-based Access Authorization System (TAAS) is provided to grant permission to acquire resources on personal portal. Meanwhile, the mechanism and algorithm are devised for user profile complete deletion when users are going to quit the service for the temporary scenarios.
       NETWORK SECURITY

Research and Implementation of the SDN Resources Transaction Process Based on Trust Mechanism

ZHUGE Bin, PENG Dan, BU Xiaobo, WANG Weiming
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 190-207
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SDN network as new network architecture, can address a range of issues of the current internet effectively, this paper in the view of SDN network resources’ allocation, for decreasing resources waste and achieving a reasonable distribution of SDN resources, come up with a suitable resource price negotiation algorithm based on trust mechanism in SDN network environment. According to the characteristics of the trust mechanism, simulating on the unit utility and equivalent price of SDN network resources in three aspects (remove individual malicious nodes, remove most malicious nodes and remove all malicious nodes), through the above simulation, combined trust mechanism with MCDAM algorithm, can form a weighing system which pricing and trust comprehensive competitive, so that the whole SDN trading environment become safer and more stable. So trust mechanism as the patch of SDN pricing negotiation algorithm. Finally, propose the planned trading model based on trust mechanism as a management method of SDN trading.
       Ict Management

A New Evaluation Algorithm for the Influence of User in Social Network

JIANG Wei, GAO Mengdi, WANG Xiaoxi, WU Xianda
China Communications, 2016, 13(2): 200-210
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Online social networks have gradually permeated into every aspect of people’s life.As a research hotspot in social network, user influence is of theoretical and practical significant for information transmission, optimization and integration. A prominent application is a viral marketing campaign which aims to use a small number of targeted influence users to initiate cascades of influence that create a global increase in product adoption. In this paper, we analyze mainly evaluation methods of user influence based on IDM evaluation model, PageRank evaluation model, use behavior model and some other popular influence evaluation models in currently social network. And then, we extract the core idea of these models to build our influence evaluation model from two aspects, relationship and activity. Finally, the proposed approach was validated on real world datasets,and the result of experiments shows that our method is both effective and stable.
 
 
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