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2015 Vol. 12, No. 6
Published: 30 June 2015

CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING
COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN
NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION
SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS
REVIEW PAPER
STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES
FEATURE TOPIC: SIDE CHANNEL ATTACKS AND COUNTERMEASURES
 
   
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       FEATURE TOPIC: SIDE CHANNEL ATTACKS AND COUNTERMEASURES

Enhanced Side-Channel Leakage Detection Method by Considering Combinational Logic

LIU Junrong, GUO Zheng, GU Dawu, YU Yu, LU Haining, GU Haihua, BAO Sigang
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 1-10
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In this paper, we propose a hybrid power model that includes the power consumption of not only the registers but also part of the combinational logic. By doing known-key analysis with this hybrid model, power side-channel leakage caused by correct keys can be detected. In experiment, PRINTcipher and DES algorithms were chosen as analysis targets and combinational logic s-box unit was selected to build power template. The analysis results showed the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) power consumption increase of more than 20% after considering s-box’s power consumption so that the information of keys can be obtained with just half number of power traces. In addition, the side channel-leakage detection capability of our method also shows better effectiveness that can identify the correct keys.
       FEATURE TOPIC: SIDE CHANNEL ATTACKS AND COUNTERMEASURES

A Novel Masking Scheme for SM3 Based MAC

QU Kaige, WANG An, WU Liji, REN Yanting, ZHANG Xiangmin
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 11-21
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The Chinese hash algorithm SM3 is verified to be secure enough, but improper hardware implementation may lead to leakage. A masking scheme for SM3 algorithm is proposed to ensure the security of SM3 based Message Authentication Code (MAC). Our scheme was implemented in hardware, which utilizes hardware oriented secure conversion techniques between boolean and arithmetic masking. Security evaluation based on SAKURA-G FPGA board has been done with 2000 power traces from 2000 random plaintexts with random plaintext masks and random key masks. It has been verified that the masked SM3 hardware implementation shows no intermediate value leakage as expected. Our masked SM3 hardware can resist first-order correlation power attack (CPA) and collision correlation attack.
       FEATURE TOPIC: SIDE CHANNEL ATTACKS AND COUNTERMEASURES

An Optimized Cross Correlation Power Attack of Message Blinding Exponentiation Algorithms

WAN Wunan, YANG Wei, CHEN Jun
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 22-31
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The message blinding method is the most efficient and secure countermeasure against first-order differential power analysis(DPA). Although cross correlation attacks(CCAs) were given for defeating message blinding methods, however searching for correlation points is difficult for noise, misalignment in practical environment. In this paper, we propose an optimized cross correlation power attack for message blinding exponentiation algorithms. The attack method can select the more correlative power points of share one operation in the modular multiplication by comparing variances between correlation coefficients. Further we demonstrate that the attack method is more efficient in experiments with hardware implementation of RSA on a crypto chip card. In addition to the proposed CCA method can recovery all 1024bits secret key and recognition rate increases to 100% even when the recorded signals are noisy.
       FEATURE TOPIC: SIDE CHANNEL ATTACKS AND COUNTERMEASURES

Analysis on the Parameter Selection Method for FLUSH+RELOAD Based Cache Timing Attack on RSA

ZHOU Ping, WANG Tao, LI Guang, ZHANG Fan, ZHAO Xinjie
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 33-45
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FLUSH+RELOAD attack is recently proposed as a new type of Cache timing attacks. There are three essential factors in this attack, which are monitored instructions, threshold and waiting interval. However, existing literature seldom exploit how and why they could affect the system. This paper aims to study the impacts of these three parameters, and the method of how to choose optimal values. The complete rules for choosing the monitored instructions based on necessary and sufficient condition are proposed. How to select the optimal threshold based on Bayesian binary signal detection principal is also proposed. Meanwhile, the time sequence model of monitoring is constructed and the calculation of the optimal waiting interval is specified. Extensive experiments are conducted on RSA implemented with binary square-and-multiply algorithm. The results show that the average success rate of full RSA key recovery is 89.67%.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Compressed SNR-and-Channel Estimation for Beam Tracking in 60-GHz WLAN

GAO Bo, ZHANG Changming, JIN Depeng, ZENG Lieguang
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 46-58
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Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and channel estimations are critical for 60-GHz communications to track the optimal transmission and reception beam pairs. However, the excessive pilot overhead for the estimations severely reduces system throughput in fast-rotation scenarios. In order to address this problem, we firstly demonstrate the potential sparseness property of 60-GHz channel in beam tracking; subsequently, via exploiting this property, we propose a novel compressed SNR-and-channel estimation. The estimation is conducted in a three-stage fashion, including the unstructured estimation, nonzero-tap detection, and structured estimation with nonzero-tap location. Numerical simulations show that, in the case of substantial reduction of the pilot overhead, the proposed estimator still reveals a significant improvement in terms of estimation performance over the scheme in IEEE 802.11ad. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the proposed SNR and channel estimators can approach the lower bounds in sparse channels so long as SNR exceeds 8 dB.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN

Cooperative DVB-SH Satellite Broadcasting Systems with Rotated Signal Constellations

Nikos C. Sagias, Stylianos Papaharalabos, P. Takis Mathiopoulos
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 59-72
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In this paper, we study the advantages of cooperation in broadcasting systems from a geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellite to mobile terminals (MTs), achieved through a terrestrial complementary ground station (CGS) with fixed installment, which acts as a relay. Moreover and in the context of the digital video broadcasting-satellite-to-handheld (DVB-SH) standard, the performance improvements offered by the rotated constellations method are investigated, where prior transmission, a phase rotation of the transmitted symbols by a fixed angle is applied followed by a random component interleaver. Turbo codes with soft decision decoding and appropriate random channel interleavers are also considered. We present analytical expressions for the bit log-likelihood ratios (LLRs) that are needed for soft decision decoding at the MT turbo decoder, while the code combining technique is adapted to improve the end-to-end (E2E) performance. Then, we obtain through extensive computer simulations the average bit error probability (ABEP) of quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals received over pure land-mobile satellite (LMS) and pure CGS links for coding rates 1/3 and 6/7. Moreover, the optimal rotation angles are obtained for both links. E2E ABEP results are then presented assuming cooperation between GEO and CGS, while the power allocation issue is investigated under fixed total transmission power. Our performance evaluation results show that by using the constellation rotation technique, a performance gain can be achieved for high coding rates.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN

A TCP Performance Enhancement Scheme in Infrastructure based Vehicular Networks

HA Le, FANG Lijin, BI Yuanguo, LIU Wei
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 73-84
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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in infrastructure based vehicular networks is dedicated to support reliable Internet services for mobile users. However, an end-to-end TCP flow not only experiences some common challenges in wireless mobile networks, such as high packet loss rate, medium access competition, unstable wireless bandwidth, and dynamic topology, etc., but also suffers from performance degradation due to traffic congestion at the Road-Side Units (RSUs) that connect the wireline and wireless networks. In order to address the challenging issues related to reliable TCP transmissions in infrastructure based vehicular networks, we propose an RSU based TCP (R-TCP) scheme. For wireline source nodes, R-TCP adopts a novel flow control mechanism to adjust transmission rates according to the status of bottleneck link. Specifically, during the short wireless connection time in Infrastructure based vehicular networks, R-TCP quickly chooses an ideal transmission rate for data transmissions instead of activating the slow start algorithm after the connection is established, and successfully avoids the oscillation of the transmission rate. Simulation results show that R-TCP achieves great advantages than some relate proposals in terms of throughput, end-to-end delay, and packet loss rate.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

Allocation and Scheduling of Network Resource for Multiple Control Applications in SDN

FENG Tao, BI Jun, WANG Ke
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 85-95
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The network resource allocation in SDN for control applications is becoming a key problem in the near future because of the conflict between the need of the flow-level flexibility control and the limited capacity of flow table. Based on the analysis of the difference of the definition of network resource between SDN and traditional IP network, the idea of the integrated allocation of link bandwidth and flow table for multiple control applications in SDN is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, a price-based joint allocation model of network resource in SDN is built by introducing the price for each of the resources, which can get the proportional fair allocation of link bandwidth and the minimum global delay at the same time. We have also designed a popular flow scheduling policy based on the proportional fair allocation of link bandwidth in order to achieve the minimum global delay. A flow scheduling module has been implemented and evaluated in Floodlight, named virtual forwarding space (VFS). VFS can not only implement the fair allocation of link bandwidth and minimum delay flow scheduling in data plane but also accelerate packet forwarding by looking up control rules in control plane.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

Rayleigh Quotient Based Interference Alignment Spectrum Sharing in MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks

RONG MEI
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 96-105
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An interference alignment (IA) spectrum sharing method based on Rayleigh quotient is proposed for distributed multi-user multi-antenna cognitive radio (CR) networks. The interference from cognitive users (CUs) to the primary (PR) system is constrained through the Rayleigh quotients of channel matrices to deal with the absence of PR users (PUs) in the IA process. As a result, the IA scheme can be applied in CR networks without harmful interference to PUs. Compared with existing IA based spectrum sharing methods, the proposed method is more general because of breaking the restriction that CUs can only transmit on the idle sub-channels of the PR system. Moreover, in comparison to other four spectrum sharing methods applicable in general scene, the proposed method leads to improved performance of achievable sum rate of the CR system as well as guarantees the transmission of PUs.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Secure Big Data Storage and Sharing Scheme for Cloud Tenants

CHENG Hongbing, RONG Chunming, HWANG Kai, WANG Weihong, LI Yanyan
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 106-115
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The Cloud is increasingly being used to store and process big data for its tenants and classical security mechanisms using encryption are neither sufficiently efficient nor suited to the task of protecting big data in the Cloud. In this paper, we present an alternative approach which divides big data into sequenced parts and stores them among multiple Cloud storage service providers. Instead of protecting the big data itself, the proposed scheme protects the mapping of the various data elements to each provider using a trapdoor function. Analysis, comparison and simulation prove that the proposed scheme is efficient and secure for the big data of Cloud tenants.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Low-Complexity Secure Network Coding Against Wiretapping Using Intra/Inter-generation Coding

LIU Guangjun, LIU Binyue, LIU Ximeng, LI Fang, GUO Wangmei
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 116-125
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Existing solutions against wiretapping attacks for network coding either bring significant bandwidth overhead or incur a high computational complexity. In order to reduce the security overhead of the existing solutions for securing network coding, a novel securing network coding paradigm is presented relying on two coding models: intra-generation coding and inter-generation coding. The basic idea to secure network coding using intra-generation coding is to limit the encryption operations for each generation, and then subject the scrambled and the remaining original source vectors to a linear transformation. This method is then generalized seamlessly using inter-generation coding by further exploiting the algebraic structure of network coding. We show that the proposed schemes have properties of low-complexity security, little bandwidth consumption, and high efficiency in integrating with the existing security techniques effectively.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

MAVP-FE: Multi-Authority Vector Policy Functional Encryption with Efficient Encryption and Decryption

WANG Jing, HUANG Chuanhe, YANG Kan, WANG Jinhai, WANG Xiaomao, CHEN Xi
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 126-140
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In cloud, data access control is a crucial way to ensure data security. Functional encryption (FE) is a novel cryptographic primitive supporting fine-grained access control of encrypted data in cloud. In FE, every ciphertext is specified with an access policy, a decryptor can access the data if and only if his secret key matches with the access policy. However, the FE cannot be directly applied to construct access control scheme due to the exposure of the access policy which may contain sensitive information. In this paper, we deal with the policy privacy issue and present a mechanism named multi-authority vector policy (MAVP) which provides hidden and expressive access policy for FE. Firstly, each access policy is encoded as a matrix and decryptors can only obtain the matched result from the matrix in MAVP. Then, we design a novel function encryption scheme based on the multi-authority spatial policy (MAVP-FE), which can support privacy-preserving yet non-monotone access policy. Moreover, we greatly improve the efficiency of encryption and decryption in MAVP-FE by shifting the major computation of clients to the outsourced server. Finally, the security and performance analysis show that our MAVP-FE is secure and efficient in practice.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

HHR: Hierarchical Hybrid Routing Scheme for Information-Centric Network

DUAN Jie, WANG Xiong, WANG Sheng, XU Shizhong
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 141-153
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Publish/subscribe (pub/sub) paradigm is the main communication model for Information-Centric Network (ICN) proposals. A key issue for pub/sub system is how to route the content objects to the correct subscribers, and ICN is no exception. ICN network would be divided into core domain and many edge domains as today’s internet does. HHR (Hierarchy Hybrid Routing scheme) is presented for ICN: A Chord-like routing scheme is used in core domain, while edge domains routing structure can be classified into three categories, Local Routing (LR), Delivery of Local Publication to Core domain (DLPC), and Remote Publication Routing into edge domain (RPR). LR can be decided by each edge domain, which determined by many factors, such as locality characteristic for pub/sub information and local policies. A hierarchical routing algorithm is proposed to solve DLPC and RPR simultaneously. Simulation results demonstrate that HHR can be fast deployed, and can be applied in large scale network or dynamic subscription environment.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

Data Distribution Mechanism over Opportunistic Networks with Limited Epidemic

GUO Da, CHENG Gang, ZHANG Yong, SONG Mei, Amanda Matthews
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 154-163
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Most of data distribution mechanism in Opportunistic Networks is derived by Epidemic data distribution, and Epidemic data distribution means that when each node meets another node, it may copy its own messages and transfer to another node. On the one hand, the copies improve the forwarding rate, and reduce the transmission delay. However, on the other hand, energy consumption increases and network survival time is reduced because the copies consume transmission resource. Therefore, copy number should be under control. In this paper, we first introduce the existing routing strategy based on Epidemic briefly, and present the Epidemic routing protocol analysis model and copy control mechanism based on the limited Epidemic in Opportunistic Networks. Then based on the limited copies scheme (LCS), we propose an energy balance scheme (EBS), the results show that EBS can improve the network survival time.
       REVIEW PAPER

Review of the Development of China’s Mobile Broadband Networks

ZHANG Weiwei, WANG Yanlong
China Communications, 2015, 12(6): 164-170
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The year of 2014 saw the beginning of China’s LTE, which marks that China has become one of the major engines for the global LTE development. China dazzled in the construction of LTE networks, subscribers, and industry chain. However, the policy formulated around TD-LTE also put China in predicament and brought it many challenges. With this article, we are going to put China’s market for mobile broadband networks into perspective, focusing on the development of China’s LTE market, challenges that encountered, and the research in this area in the years to come. Besides, in regards to the problems that already appeared, we will, from policy-making, industry-level, and technological points of view, offer our suggestions on how China should do to make this market robust.
 
 
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