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2015 Vol. 12, No. 3
Published: 31 March 2015

CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING
COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN
SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS
STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES
FEATURE TOPIC: SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS
BOOK REVIEW
 
   
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       FEATURE TOPIC: SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS

Next Generation Narrowband (Under 500 kHz) Power Line Communication (PLC) Standards

Stefano Galli, Thierry Lys
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 1-8
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In the past decade, several efforts around the world were started with the goal of introducing “smart metering” capabilities into the power grid. These efforts have spurred renewed interest in the design of next generation Narrowbanrbd Power Line Communications (NB-PLC) transceivers. In the past few years, ITU-T and IEEE have standardized a family of next generation OFDM-based NB-PLC transceivers some of which are today being considered for massive deployments in Europe and Asia. This paper addresses the important role that PLC has not only for smart metering but also for many other Smart Grid applications, and also gives an overview of the main differences between these next generation NB-PLC standards.
       FEATURE TOPIC: SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS

An Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Joining to Charging/discharging Station in Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) Networks

CHEN Jie, ZHANG Yueyu, SU Wencong
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 9-19
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Incorporating electric vehicles into smart grid, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) makes it feasible to charge for large-scale electric vehicles, and in turn support electric vehicles, as mobile and distributed storage units, to discharge to smart grid. In order to provide reliable and efficient services, the operator of V2G networks needs to monitor real-time status of every plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) and then evaluate current electricity storage capability. Anonymity, aggregation and dynamic management are three basic but crucial characteristics of which the services of V2G networks should be. However, few of existing authentication schemes for V2G networks could satisfy them simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a secure and efficient authentication scheme with privacy-preserving for V2G networks. The scheme makes the charging/discharging station authenticate PEVs anonymously and manage them dynamically. Moreover, the monitoring data collected by the charging/discharging station could be sent to a local aggregator (LAG) in batch mode. In particular, time overheads during verification stage are independent with the number of involved PEVs, and there is no need to update the membership certificate and key pair before PEV logs out.
       FEATURE TOPIC: SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS

Investing and Pricing with Supply Uncertainty in Electricity Market: A General View Combining Wholesale and Retail Market

LI Xiaobo, GAO Li, WANG Gongpu, GAO Feifei, WU Qingwei
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 20-34
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Renewable energy, such as wind and solar energy, may vary significantly over time and locations depending on the weather and the climate conditions. This leads to the supply uncertainty in the electricity (power) market with renewable energy integrated to power grid. In this paper, electricity in the market is classified into two types: stable-supply electricity (SSE) and unstable-supply electricity (USE). We investigate the investment and pricing strategies under the electricity supply uncertainty in wholesale and retail electricity market. In particular, our model combines the wholesale and retail market and capture the dominant players, i.e., consumers, power plant (power operator), and electricity supplier. To derive the market behaviors of these players, we formulate the market decision problems as a multistage Stackelberg game. By solving the game model, we obtain the the optimal, with closed-form, wholesale investment and retail pricing strategy for the operator. We also obtain the energy supplier's best price mechanism numerically under certain assumption. We find the price of SSE being about 1.4 times higher than that of USE will benefit energy supplier optimally, under which power plant's optimal strategy of investing is to purchase USE about 4.5 times much more than SSE.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

A Novel Non-Equidifferent Optical APPM Mapping Scheme For Strong Turbulent Atmospheric Channel

WANG Kaimin, ZHANG Lijia, LIU Bo, ZHANG Qi, TIAN Qinghua, XIN Xiangjun
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 35-42
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An optical Amplitude and Pulse Position Modulation (APPM) mapping scheme for strong turbulent atmospheric channel is proposed to optimize Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. In this scheme, a non-equidifferent amplitude series is designed based on quantitative BER analysis of the specific A×M APPM demapping procedures containing time slot selection and amplitude decision in selected time slot, which are different from traditional ones. Simulation results of 4×4, 4×8 and 4×16 APPM show 4, 3.4 and 6.9 dB SNR gain against traditional APPM scheme respectively. Thus significant BER performance improvement is achieved which helps to enhance reliability of free-space optical communication systems.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Tropospheric Scintillation Estimation Using 10 Years Meteorological Data

Muhammad Tahir, Piao Yan, Muhammad Aslam, Azizur Rahim
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 43-49
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This paper presents estimation of tropospheric scintillation based on ITU-R model from previous 10 years meteorological data. Scintillation As(p) is critical in designing of microwave links for achieving optimal performance. There are many phenomenons that cause degradation to signal during transmission through the earth's atmosphere one of them is scintillation. Scintillation estimation is based on measurements of surface temperature T and relative humidity RH. Input parameter for ITU-R scintillation estimation model is the monthly average of wet part of refractivity Nwet. MATLAB software tool is employed to show the results for tropospheric scintillation in various seasons for time percentage p and frequencies ranging from 4GHz to 20GHz .
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Hierarchical Code Assignment Algorithm and State-based CDMA Protocol for UWSN

DU Xiujuan, PENG Chunyan, LIU Xiuxiu, LIU Yuchi
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 50-61
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The characteristics of underwater acoustic channel such as long propagation delay and low bit rate cause the MAC (Medium Access Control) protocols designed for radio channels to be either inapplicable, or have low efficiency for UWSN (Underwater Sensor Network). We propose a hierarchical and distributed code assignment algorithm based on divisive probability function which can avoid conflict between spread codes with high probability, and provide a state-based MAC protocol for UWSN. Without RTS/CTS (Request To Send/Clear To Send) handshaking, each node maintains a neighbor table including state field, and packages are forwarded according to the state of the receiver, so it can avoid the interference caused by transmitting to a sending node in a half-duplex system and improve channel utilization. The design of power control minimizes the near-far effect inherent in CDMA. Simulation results reveal that state-based CDMA protocol shows outstanding performance in throughput, delivery ratio and resource-consumption.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Finite Series Representation of Rician Shadowed Channel with Integral Fading Parameter and the Associated Exact Performance Analysis

JIAN Xin, ZENG Xiaoping, YU Anning, YE Changrong, YANG Junyi
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 62-70
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With the deployment of small cells and device to device communications in future heterogeneous networks, in many situations we would encounter mobile radio channels with partly blocked line of sight component, which are well modeled by the Rician shadowed (RS) fading channel. In this paper, by the usage of Kummer transformation, a simplified representation of the RS fading channel with integral fading parameter is given. It is a finite series representation involving only exponential function and low order polynomials. This allows engineers not only the closed-form expressions for exact performance analysis over RS fading channel, but also the insights on the system design tactics.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN

Separate Dimming Controlling and Data Transmission for an Indoor Visible Light Communication System

LIU Xiang, YANG Aiying, LI Yankun, FENG Lihui
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 71-76
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Simultaneous dimming controlling and data transmission are usually required in a white LED based indoor visible light communication system. However, the diming controlling of LED normally interferes the data transmission due to the modulation nonlinearity of LED. In order to solve this problem, a scheme by separating the LEDs for the functions of dimming control and data transmission respectively is proposed in this paper. In the scheme, the LEDs used for dimming control function are driven by a dc amplified circuit, and the LEDs for data transmission are driven by a digital modulation circuit respectively. In this way, the modulation distortion to the data signal caused by the modulation nonlinearity can be avoided even if the dimming is at high level dc driven current. The proof-of-concept experiment of a 2.5Mbit/s visible light communication system demonstrates that the dimming controlling and data transmission can be realized simultaneously in a simple way, and the data transmission is not affected by the dimming controlling function. Compared to previous methods, the scheme in this paper is simpler and cost effective, and makes sense when high rate data is transmitted in a visible light communication system.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN

An Improved Underwater Acoustic Network Localization Algorithm

WU Zhehao, LI Xia
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 77-83
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Underwater sensor network can achieve the unmanned environmental monitoring and military monitoring missions. Underwater acoustic sensor node cannot rely on the GPS to position itself, and the traditional indirect positioning methods used in Ad Hoc networks are not fully applicable to the localization of underwater acoustic sensor networks. In this paper, we introduce an improved underwater acoustic network localization algorithm. The algorithm processes the raw data before localization calculation to enhance the tolerance of random noise. We reduce the redundancy of the calculation results by using a more accurate basic algorithm and an adjusted calculation strategy. The improved algorithm is more suitable for the underwater acoustic sensor network positioning.
       COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM DESIGN

Analysis on the Content Features and Their Correlation of Web Pages for Spam Detection

JI Hua, ZHANG Huaxiang
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 84-94
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In the global information era, people acquire more and more information from the Internet, but the quality of the search results is degraded strongly because of the presence of web spam. Web spam is one of the serious problems for search engines, and many methods have been proposed for spam detection. We exploit the content features of non-spam in contrast to those of spam. The content features for non-spam pages always possess lots of statistical regularities; but those for spam pages possess very few statistical regularities, because spam pages are made randomly in order to increase the page rank. In this paper, we summarize the regularities distributions of content features for non-spam pages, and propose the calculating probability formulae of the entropy and independent n-grams respectively. Furthermore, we put forward the calculation formulae of multi features correlation. Among them, the notable content features may be used as auxiliary information for spam detection.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

Mobility Support for Content Source in Content-Centric Networking

HUANG Tao, LI Jiangxu, JIANG Liu, ZHANG Yunyong, LIU Yunjie
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 95-105
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Content-centric networking (CCN) is rising to solve the problems suffered by traditional networks, especially in terms of content delivery. One of the critical issues for basic CCN is supporting mobility. Handoff of Mobile Content Source (MCS) will result in a large scale routing update, which generates huge amount of routing overhead and leads to service interruption. Most of the existing CCN mobility mechanisms are transplanted from the IP mobility solutions, which are unnaturally integrated with CCN. Different from previous works, a mobility strategy from the perspective of CCN architecture is proposed to support the handoff of MCS in this paper. Especially, we define the critical network routers that can limit the routing update scale effectively when MCS handoff is conducted. Based on the defined critical network routers, the proposed scheme can provide lower routing update overhead, faster routing convergence and shorter service interruption time. Finally, series of simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

Analysis and Modeling of k-regular and k-connected Protection Structure in Ultra-high Capacity Optical Networks

LI Xin, HUANG Shanguo, ZHANG Jie, ZHAO Yongli, GU Wanyi, WANG Yang
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 106-119
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This paper proposes k-regular and k-connected (k&k) structure against multi-faults in ultra-high capacity optical networks. Theoretical results show that pre-configured k&k structure can reach the lower bound on logical redundancy. The switching time of k&kprotection structure is as quickly as ring-based protection in SDH network. It is the optimal protection structure in ultra-high capacity optical networks against multi-faults. We develop the linear programming model for k&k structure and propose a construction method for k&kstructure design. Simulations are conducted for spare spectrum resources efficiency of the pre-configured k&k structure under multi-faults on representative COST239 and NSFnet topologies. Numerical results show that the spare spectrum resources efficiency of k&k structure can reach the lower bound on logical redundancy in static networks. And it can largely improve spare spectrum resources efficiency compared with p-cycles based protection structure without reducing protection efficiency under dynamic traffics.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

A Novel Smart Forwarding Scheme in LTE-Advanced Networks

CHEN Jengyueng, YANG Chunchuan, MAI Yiting
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 120-131
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Long Term Evolution (LTE) and IEEE 802.16 WiMAX are competing access network technologies adopted in 4G wireless networks in recent years. LTE complies with 3GPP standards whereas 802.16 WiMAX is regulated by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Although WiMAX is already operating commercially in Taiwan, the system is limited to an independent new system that is incompatible with the current 3G system. Hence, the cost of implementing the WiMAX system is relatively high, this being an impediment to its rapid uptake and widespread use. On the other hand, LTE conforms to 3GPP that is supported by telecommunication manufacturers and operators and is, moreover, backward compatible with 3G/UMTS cellular systems. The LTE specifications define how user equipment (UE) connects and communicates with evolved Node B (eNB) base stations. The enhanced version, LTE-Advanced, adds a new entity called the relay node (RN) to widen service coverage, although this change has resulted in a more complex architecture. Mobility management and data forwarding are essential components in wireless mobile networking. This paper focuses on the efficient handover procedure in LTE-Advanced networks, and proposes a Smart Forwarding mechanism to improve the handover performance. Simulation studies show that the proposed Smart Forwarding scheme employs a better operational transmission path that effectively reduces handover latency and signal overhead.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

Survey of Security Issues in Cognitive Radio Networks

LI Jianwu, FENG Zebing, FENG Zhiyong, ZHANG Ping
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 132-150
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In the last decade, cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a major next generation wireless networking technology, which is the most promising candidate solution to solve the spectrum scarcity and improve the spectrum utilization. However, there exist enormous challenges for the open and random access environment of CRNs, where the unlicensed secondary users (SUs) can use the channels that are not currently used by the licensed primary users (PUs) via spectrum-sensing technology. Because of this access method, some malicious users may access the cognitive network arbitrarily and launch some special attacks, such as primary user emulation attack, falsifying data or denial of service attack, which will cause serious damage to the cognitive radio network. In addition to the specific security threats of cognitive network, CRNs also face up to the conventional security threats, such as eavesdropping, tampering, imitation, forgery, and noncooperation etc.. Hence, Cognitive radio networks have much more risks than traditional wireless networks with its special network model. In this paper, we considered the security threats from passive and active attacks. Firstly, the PHY layer security is presented in the view of passive attacks, and it is a compelling idea of using the physical properties of the radio channel to help provide secure wireless communications. Moreover, malicious user detection is introduced in the view of active attacks by means of the signal detection techniques to decrease the interference and the probabilities of false alarm and missed detection. Finally, we discuss the general countermeasures of security threats in three phases. In particular, we discuss the far reaching effect of defensive strategy against attacks in CRNs.
       BOOK REVIEW

Book Review- Next Generation Internet and IPv6 Transition

CUI Yong
China Communications, 2015, 12(3): 151-153
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IPv4 address space has been exhausted since 2011. The problem will be solved by moving forward to the next-generation Internet based on IPv6. Smooth transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is the key to deciding whether the next-generation Internet is successful. IPv6-transition, hence, has been become the focus of both industry and academia.However, due to the staggering difficulty of IPv6-transition technology, most of the existing literatures merely describe the IPv6 specific protocol or conventional IPv6 transition technology, which cannot meet the practical needs of the industry for IPv6 transition technology.Fortunately, the scholarly writing, Next Generation Internet and IPv6 Transition, published by Tsinghua University Press in April 2014, points out the direction for the development of the IPv6 transition area.The authors are Prof. Yong Cui and Prof. Jianping Wu from Tsinghua University. Prof. Cui is also an editor of IEEE TPDS and IEEE TCC.Prof. Wu, as an IEEE Fellow, received the Jonathan B. Postel Award from the Internet Society in 2010.
 
 
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