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2015 Vol. 12, No. 7
Published: 13 July 2015

Guest Editorial
CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING
NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION
SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS
STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES
REVIEW PAPERS
 
   
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       Guest Editorial

Baseband ASIP Design for SDR

Liu Dake
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 1-12
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Baseband ASIP designs for handsets are discussed based on the author’s R&D backgrounds. Algorithms for 4G, 3G, and WLAN are analyzed and selected for implementation based on the trade off of cost and performance with power consumption in mind. A SDR ASIP baseband system architecture is proposed for 4G and 3G mobile handsets. Function partitions for heterogeneous symbol processors are introduced to get higher performance over cost. Three structures for DFE, FFE, and Matrix symbol ASIP are proposed. The concept of bit parallel processor is introduced. Challenges of baseband processors for UDN of 5G were briefly introduced. Conclusions on ASIP architecture and system design are given for different baseband processors on different products.
       Guest Editorial

A Survey on Information-Centric Networking: Rationales, Designs and Debates

Jiang Xiaoke, Bi Jun, Nan Guoshun, Li Zhaogeng
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 13-22
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The basic function of the Internet is to delivery data (what) to serve the needs of all applications. IP names the attachment points (where) to facilitate ubiquitous interconnectivity as the current way to deliver data. The fundamental mismatch between data delivery and naming attachment points leads to a lot of challenges, e.g., mapping from data name to IP address, handling dynamics of underlying topology, scaling up the data distribution, and securing communication, etc. Informationcentric networking (ICN) is proposed to shift the focus of communication paradigm from where to what, by making the named data the first-class citizen in the network, The basic consensus of ICN is to name the data independent from its container (space dimension) and session (time dimension), which breaks the limitation of point-to-point IP semantic. It scales up data distribution by utilizing available resources, and facilitates communication to fit diverse connectivity and heterogeneous networks. However, there are only a few consensuses on the detailed design of ICN, and quite a few different ICN architectures are proposed. This paper reveals the rationales of ICN from the perspective of the Internet evolution, surveys different design choices, and discusses on two debatable topics in ICN, i.e., self-certifying versus hierarchical names, and edge versus pervasive caching. We hope this survey helps clarify some mis-understandings on ICN and achieve more consensuses.
       Guest Editorial

Exploring Content Popularity in Information-Centric Networks

Andriana Ioannou, Stefan Weber
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 23-30
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Information-Centric Networking (ICN), an alternative architecture to the current Internet infrastructure, focuses on the distribution and retrieval of content by employing caches in a network to reduce network traffic. The employment of caches may be accomplished using graph-based and content-based criteria such as the position of a node in a network and content popularity. The contribution of this paper lies on the characterization of content popularity for on-path in-network caching. To this end, four dynamic approaches for identifying content popularity are evaluated via simulations. Content popularity may be determined per chunk or per object, calculated by the number of requests for a content against the sum of requests or the maximum number of requests. Based on the results, chunk-based approaches provide 23% more accurate content popularity calculations than object-based approaches. In addition, approaches that are based on the comparison of a content against the maximum number of requests have been shown to be more accurate than the alternatives.
       Guest Editorial

Caching Algorithm with a Novel Cost Model to Deliver Content and its Interest over Content Centric Networks

Su Zhou, Fang Dongfeng, Han Bo
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 31-46
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Recently the content centric networks (CCNs) have been advocated as a new solution to design future networks. In the CCNs, content and its interest are delivered over the content store and pending interest table, respectively, where both have limited capacities. Therefore, how to design the corresponding algorithms to efficiently deliver content and inertest over them becomes an important issue. In this paper, based on the analysis of content distribution, status of content store, and pending interest, we propose a novel caching algorithm with which the resources of content store and pending interest table can be efficiently used. Simulation results prove that the proposal can outperform the conventional methods.
       Guest Editorial

Design and Implementation of Not So Cooperative Caching System

Hu Xiaoyan, Gong Jian, Cheng Guang, Zhang Weiwei, Ahmad Jakalan
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 47-59
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Not So Cooperative Caching (NSCC) considers a network comprised of selfish nodes; each is with caching capability and an objective of reducing its own access cost by fetching data from its local cache or from neighboring caches. These nodes would cooperate in caching and share cached content if and only if they each benefit. The challenges are to determine what objects to cache at each node and to implement the system in the context of Information Centric Networking (ICN). This work includes both a solution for the NSCC problem and a design and implementation of an NSCC system in Named Data Networking (NDN), a large effort that exemplifies ICN. Our design applies NDN synchronization protocol to facilitate the information exchange among nodes, adopts group key encryption to control data access within the NSCC group, and offers an error checker to detect error events in the system. Our approach is validated by deploying the system we developed on PlanetLab.
       REVIEW PAPERS

Geometric Name Routing for ICN in Dynamic World

SUN Yanbin, ZHANG Yu, SU Shen, ZHANG Hongli, FANG Binxing
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 60-72
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A new paradigm of scalable routing for ICN is to combine a geometric routing scheme with a Distributed Hash Table. However, for most routing schemes in this paradigm, when a node joins or leaves, large numbers of nodes, even the whole topology, need to be re-embedded, and a great number of contents need to be re-registered. In this paper, we propose D-Griffin, a geometric routing scheme on flat names for dynamic topologies. D-Griffin provides two advantages. First, it avoids re-embedding the topology by using an online greedy embedding scheme and a void handling greedy forwarding scheme. Second, it decreases the number of re-registrations by using a name mapping scheme with a tradeoff between topology independence and load balancing. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that D-Griffin provides guaranteed content lookup, low description complexity, low path stretch, scalable routing update, and acceptable load balancing.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Joint Power Allocation and Mode Selection for D2D communications with Imperfect CSI

Ma Bei, Zhang Hailin, Zhang Zhaowei
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 73-81
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Device-to-device (D2D) communications can be underlaid with a cellular infrastructure to increase resource utilization, improve user throughput and save battery energy. In such networks, power allocation and mode selection are crucial problems. To address the joint optimization of power and mode selection under imperfect CSI, we propose an optimal, energy-aware joint power allocation and mode selection (JPAMS) scheme. First, we derive the closed-form solution for the power minimization for both D2D and cellular links while satisfying different quality of service (QoS) constraints. Second, we address the mode selection problem in presence of imperfect CSI, based on the derived power allocation. Moreover, the theoretical analysis and simulation results are presented to evaluate the proposed scheme for the D2D communications.
       NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION

An Improved Unsupervised Approach to Word Segmentation

Wang Hanshi, Han Xuhong, Liu Lizhen, Song Wei, Yuan Mudan
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 82-95
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ESA is an unsupervised approach to word segmentation previously proposed by Wang, which is an iterative process consisting of three phases: Evaluation, Selection and Adjustment. In this article, we propose ExESA, the extension of ESA. In ExESA, the original approach is extended to a 2-pass process and the ratio of different word lengths is introduced as the third type of information combined with cohesion and separation. A maximum strategy is adopted to determine the best segmentation of a character sequence in the phrase of Selection. Besides, in Adjustment, ExESA re-evaluates separation information and individual information to overcome the overestimation frequencies. Additionally, a smoothing algorithm is applied to alleviate sparseness. The experiment results show that ExESA can further improve the performance and is time-saving by properly utilizing more information from un-annotated corpora. Moreover, the parameters of ExESA can be predicted by a set of empirical formulae or combined with the minimum description length principle.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Joint Network and Fountain Codes Design for Relay- Assisted Multi-User System

Huang Ying, Lei Jing, Wei Jibo
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 95-107
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In relay-assisted multi-user system, relay coding is important to enhance the robustness and reliability of cooperative transmission. For better adaptability and efficiency, two joint network and fountain coding (JNFC) schemes are proposed. When the condition of all direct channels is worse, JNFC scheme based on distributed LT(DLT) codes is used. Otherwise, JNFC scheme based on multi-dimensional LT(MD-LT) codes is suited. For both two above-mentioned schemes, the united degree distribution design method for short-length fountain codes is proposed. For the latter scheme, MD-LT codes are proposed for equal error protection (EEP) of each user. Simulation results and analysis show that the united degree distribution need less decoding overhead compared with other degree distribution for short-length fountain codes. And then, all users are protected equally in despite of asymmetric uplinks.
       CHANNEL CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING

Research on E-mail Communication Network Evolution Model Based on User Information Propagation

ZHANG Lejun, GUO Lin, XU Li
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 108-118
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E-mail communication network evolution model based on user information propagation is studied. First, mathematical representation of weighted e-mail communication network is proposed, and network center parameters of Enron dataset and the distribution of node degree and strength are analyzed. Then, some rules of e-mail communication network evolution are found. Second, the model of e-mail information propagation is described, and e-mail communication network evolution model based on user information propagation is proposed. Lastly, the simulation proves the correctness of the distribution characteristic of degree and strength of the model proposed and then verifies that the model proposed is closer to the real situation of e-mail communication network through parameter comparison. This research provides the basis for other researches on social network evolution and data communication.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

A Jury-Based Trust Management Mechanism in Distributed Cognitive Radio Networks

Su Wengui, Liao Yang
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 119-126
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In the trust management scheme of the distributed cognitive radio networks, the absence of the central control devices cause many problems such as a lack of standardized control for trust computation, and the absence of the decision makers in trust evaluation and collaborative decision making. A trust management mechanism based on the jury system for distributed cognitive radio networks is proposed in this paper. The “jury user” is designed to collaboratively examine the reputation of the cognitive user in the networks and to perform data fusion and spectrum allocation for distributed cognitive radio networks. Simulation analysis results show that the proposed scheme can ensure accuracy and fairness in trust evaluation and improve effectiveness and flexibility of spectrum allocation.
       SECURITY SCHEMES AND SOLUTIONS

A Comprehensive Study of Algebraic Fault Analysis on PRINCE

Zhang Fan, Zhao Xinjie, Guo Shize, Shen Jizhong, Huang Jing, Hu Zijie
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 127-141
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PRINCE is a 64-bit lightweight block cipher with a 128-bit key published at ASIACRYPT 2012. Assuming one nibble fault is injected, previous different fault analysis (DFA) on PRINCE adopted the technique from DFA on AES and current results are different. This paper aims to make a comprehensive study of algebraic fault analysis (AFA) on PRINCE. How to build the equations for PRINCE and faults are explained. Extensive experiments are conducted. Under nibble-based fault model, AFA with three or four fault injections can succeed within 300 seconds with a very high probability. Under other fault models such as byte-based, half word-based, word-based fault models, the faults become overlapped in the last round and previous DFAs are difficult to work. Our results show that AFA can still succeed to recover the full master key. To evaluate security of PRINCE against fault attacks, we utilize AFA to calculate the reduced entropy of the secret key for given amount of fault injections. The results can interpret and compare the efficiency of previous work. Under nibble-based fault model, the master key of PRINCE can be reduced to 29.69 and 236.10 with 3 and 2 fault injections on average, respectively.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

Traffic Scheduling Mechanism Based on Interference Avoidance for Meter Data Collection in Wireless Smart Grid Communication Networks

Shao Sujie, Guo Shaoyong, Qiu Xuesong, Meng Luoming, Lei Min
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 142-153
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Meter Data Collection Building Area Network (MDCBAN) deployed in high rises is playing an increasingly important role in wireless multi-hop smart grid meter data collection. Recently, increasingly numerous application layer data traffic makes MDCBAN be facing serious communication pressure. In addition, large density of meter data collection devices scattered in the limited geographical space of high rises results in obvious communication interference. To solve these problems, a traffic scheduling mechanism based on interference avoidance for meter data collection in MDCBAN is proposed. Firstly, the characteristics of network topology are analyzed and the corresponding traffic distribution model is proposed. Next, a wireless multi-channel selection scheme for different Floor Gateways and a single-channel time unit assignment scheme for data collection devices in the same Floor Network are proposed to avoid interference. At last, a data balanced traffic scheduling algorithm is proposed. Simulation results show that balanced traffic distribution and highly efficient and reliable data transmission can be achieved on the basis of effective interference avoidance between data collection devices.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

An Immunization Strategy for Social Network Worms Based on Network Vertex Influence

Yang Wei, Wang Haibo, Yao Yu
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 154-166
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Along with the rapid development of social networks, social network worms have constituted one of the major internet security problems. The root of worm is the inevitable software vulnerability during the design and implementation process of software. So it is hard to completely avoid worms in the existing software engineering systems. Due to lots of bandwidth consumption, the patch cannot be transmitted simultaneously by the network administrator to all hosts. This paper studies how to prevent the propagation of social network worms through the immunization of key nodes. Unlike existing containment models for worm propagation, a novel immunization strategy is proposed based on network vertex influence. The strategy selects the critical vertices in the whole network. Then the immunization is applied on the selected vertices to achieve the maximal effect of worm containment with minimal cost. Different algorithms are implemented to select vertices. Simulation experiments are presented to analyze and evaluate the performance of different algorithms.
       STRATEGIES AND SCHEMES

Efficient Priority Packet Recovery Based on Network Coding in DVB-IPDC System

Wang Lian, Peng Daiyuan, Liang Hongbin
China Communications, 2015, 12(7): 167-178
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In DVB-IPDC system, due to the constraints of handheld devices and the broadcast nature of wireless network, packet loss is inevitable. ECDR-NC proposed is a retransmission encoding packet selection algorithm based on the dynamic information updating, which can find the current most effective complete decoding packet. ECDR-NC can not only avoid the redundant encoding packets due to the overlapping among encoding packets, but also reduce the computational complexity compared with the traditional encoding schemes. Furthermore, the retransmission upper bound of ECDR-NC is fully controlled. In time-sensitive applications, to maximize the aggregate number of recovery packets while minimizing the total number of discarded packets due to the time limit according to the priority preference, the adaptive priority scheme EPNC is formulized, and the weighted relation graph is constructed to find the maximum-weighted encoding packets sequence according to the decoding gains. In the same network environment, the performances comparisons between PNC and EPNC show that EPNC is more efficient and more rational, and the average discarded packets ratios of EPNC can be reduced about 18%~27%. The main contributions of this paper are an effective retransmission encoding packet selection algorithm ECDR-NC proposed, and a new adaptive priority recovery scheme EPNC introduced into DVB-IPDC system.
 
 
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