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China Communications
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User Association and Wireless Backhaul Bandwidth Allocation for 5G Heterogeneous Networks in the Millimeter-Wave Band
Zhenxiang Su, Bo Ai1, Yichuan Lin, Danping He, Ke Guan, Ning Wang, Guoyu Ma, Li Niu
The user association and wireless backhaul bandwidth allocation for a two-tier heterogeneous network (HetNet) in the millimeter wave (mmWave) band is proposed in thi...
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  2018, 15(4)  
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User Association and Wireless Backhaul Bandwidth Allocation for 5G Heterogeneous Networks in the Millimeter-Wave Band Hot!
Zhenxiang Su, Bo Ai1, Yichuan Lin, Danping He, Ke Guan, Ning Wang, Guoyu Ma, Li Niu
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 1-13
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The user association and wireless backhaul bandwidth allocation for a two-tier heterogeneous network (HetNet) in the millimeter wave (mmWave) band is proposed in this article. The two-tier HetNet is built up with a macro base station (MBS) and several small cell SBSs, where the MBS is assumed to be equipped with large-scale antenna arrays but the SBSs only have single-antenna capability and they rely on the wireless link to the MBS for backhaul. The sum of logarithmic user rate, which is established according to the result of multi-user Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) downlink employing Zero-Force Beamforming (ZFBF), is chosen as the network utility for the objective function. And a distributed optimization algorithm based on primal and dual decomposition is used to jointly optimize the user association variable xj,i and the wireless backhaul bandwidth factor β. Simulation results reveal that the distributed optimization algorithm jointly optimizing two variables outperforms the conventional SINR-based user association strategies.
Privacy-preserving Prepayment based Power Request and Trading in Smart Grid
Shaohua Li, Xiang Zhang, Kaiping Xue, Lijie Zhou, Hao Yue
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 14-27
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Demand response has been intensively studied in recent years. It can motivate customers to change their consumption patterns according to the dynamic (time-varying) electricity price, which is considered to be the most cost-effective and reliable solution for smoothing the demand curve. However, many existing schemes, based on users’ demand request in each period, require users to consume their requested electricity exactly, which sometimes causes inconvenience and losses to the utility, because customers cannot always be able to consume the accurate electricity demand due to various personal reasons. In this paper, we tackle this problem in a novel approach. Instead of charging after consumption, we adopt the prepayment mechanism to implement power request. Furthermore, we propose a trading market running by the control center to cope with the users’ dynamic demand. It is noteworthy that both users’ original demand and trading records are protected against potential adversaries including the curious control center. Through the numerical simulation, we demonstrate that our scheme is highly efficient in both computation and communication.
Outage Performance of Cognitive DF Relaying Networks Employing SWIPT
Jing Yang, Yiyun Cheng, Kostas P. Peppas, P. Takis Mathiopoulos, Jie Ding
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 28-40
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In this paper, the outage performance of a cognitive relaying network over Nakagami-m fading channels, employing simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technology is analyzed and evaluated. The operation of this network is considered in conjunction with the conventional decode-and-forward (DF) and incremental DF (IDF) protocols. For the conventional DF protocol, it is assumed that there is no direct link between the secondary transmitter (S) and the secondary destination (D), while (for both protocols) after harvesting energy, the relay node (R) always helps to forward the resulting signal to D. However, for the IDF protocol, R assists in relaying S’s information to D only when the direct communication between S and D has failed. Furthermore, for both DF and IDF protocols, we assume there is no power supply for R, and R harvests energy from the transmitted signal of S. We derive exact analytical expressions for the outage probability at D in DF and IDF protocols, respectively, in terms of the bivariate Meijer’s G-function. Performance evaluation results obtained by means of Monte-Carlo simulations are also provided and have validated the correctness of the proposed analysis.
Semi-Supervised Learning Based Big Data-Driven Anomaly Detection in Mobile Wireless Networks
Bilal Hussain, Qinghe Du, Pinyi Ren
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 41-57
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With rising capacity demand in mobile networks, the infrastructure is also becoming increasingly denser and complex. This results in collection of larger amount of raw data (big data) that is generated at different levels of network architecture and is typically underutilized. To unleash its full value, innovative machine learning algorithms need to be utilized in order to extract valuable insights which can be used for improving the overall network’s performance. Additionally, a major challenge for network operators is to cope up with increasing number of complete (or partial) cell outages and to simultaneously reduce operational expenditure. This paper contributes towards the aforementioned problems by exploiting big data generated from the core network of 4G LTE-A to detect network’s anomalous behavior. We present a semi-supervised statistical-based anomaly detection technique to identify in time: first, unusually low user activity region depicting sleeping cell, which is a special case of cell outage; and second, unusually high user traffic area corresponding to a situation where special action such as additional resource allocation, fault avoidance solution etc. may be needed. Achieved results demonstrate that the proposed method can be used for timely and reliable anomaly detection in current and future cellular networks.
5.9 GHz Vehicular Channels Comparisons Between Two Traffic Status for Dense Urban Area
Fang Li, Wei Chen, Yishui Shui, Lida Xu, Junyi Yu, Changzhen Li, Kun Yang, Fuxing Chang, Yi Liu
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 58-71
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This study focused on differences in vehicle-to-vehicle radio channel characteristics in the same region but different traffic density and speeds at 5.9 GHz (congestion and non-congestion). The continuous measurement campaign was conducted on a city expressway through the complex dense urban area in Wuhan, China. Small-scale channel characteristics including power delay profile, amplitude fading distribution, K-factor, delay spread and Doppler shift were obtained, respectively. Specifically, the cumulative distribution function of root mean square delay spreads and root mean square Doppler spreads in the non-congested scenario and congested scenario were all fitted well with Lognormal distribution. We also found out that different intensity of traffic and speed of vehicles have little effect on root mean square delay spreads, but have a big impact on root mean square Doppler spreads and level crossing rate. According to estimation outcomes, the V2V channel characteristics for urban areas in Chinese big city were different from the previous measured results under similar scenarios in Europe. Delay spread and level crossing rate in this study can provide significant references to design the wireless communication system for vehicle-to-vehicle channel.
Context-Oriented Multi-RAT User Association and Resource Allocation with Triple Decision in 5G Heterogeneous Networks
Jing Li, Xing Zhang*, Shuo Wang, Wenbo Wang
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 72-86
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In the upcoming 5G heterogeneous networks, leveraging multiple radio access technologies (RATs) shows to be a crucial issue in achieving RAT multiplexing gain to meet the explosive traffic demand. For always best connection (ABC), users tend to activate parallel transmission across all available RATs. However from a system-wide perspective, this might not be optimal given the context of network load, interference and diverse service requirements. To intelligently determine how to use these multi-RAT access resources concurrently, this paper proposes a joint multi-RAT user association and resource allocation strategy with triple decision and integrated context awareness of users and networks. A dynamic game based ant colony algorithm (GACA) is designed to simultaneously maximize the system utility and the fairness of resource allocation. Simulation results show that it’s more reasonable to make multi-RAT association decision from a system-wide viewpoint than from an individual one. Compared to max-SNR based and ABC based strategies, the proposed method alleviates network congestion and optimizes resource allocation. It obtains 39%~70% performance improvement.
Channel Estimation and Throughput Evaluation for 5G Wireless Communication Systems in Various Scenarios on High Speed Railways
Yanrong Zhao, Xiyu Wang, Gongpu Wang, Ruisi He, Yulong Zou, Zhuyan Zhao
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 86-97
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The fifth generation (5G) wireless communication is currently a hot research topic and wireless communication systems on high speed railways (HSR) are important applications of 5G technologies. Existing studies about 5G wireless systems on high speed railways (HSR) often utilize ideal channel parameters and are usually based on simple scenarios. In this paper, we evaluate the downlink throughput of 5G HSR communication systems on three typical scenarios including urban, cutting and viaduct with three different channel estimators. The channel parameters of each scenario are generated with tapped delay line (TDL) models through ray-tracing simulations, which can be considered as a good match to practical situations. The channel estimators including least square (LS), linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE), and our proposed historical information based basis expansion model (HiBEM). We analyze the performance of the HiBEM estimator in terms of mean square error (MSE) and evaluate the system throughputs with different channel estimates over each scenario. Simulation results are then provided to corroborate our proposed studies. It is shown that our HiBEM estimator outperforms other estimators and that the system throughput can reach the highest point in the viaduct scenario.
Fake Reviews Tell No Tales? Dissecting Click Farming in Content-Generated Social Networks
Neng Li, Suguo Du, Haizhong Zheng, Minhui Xue, Haojin Zhu
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 98-109
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Recently, there has been a radial shift from traditional online social networks to content-generated social networks (CGSNs). Contemporary CGSNs, such as Dianping and TripAdvisor, are often the targets of click farming in which fake reviews are posted in order to boost or diminish the ratings of listed products and services simply through clicking. Click farming often emanates from a collection of multiple fake or compromised accounts, which we call click farmers. In this paper, we conduct a three-phase methodology to detect click farming. We begin by clustering communities based on newly-defined collusion networks. We then apply the Louvain community detection method to detecting communities. We finally perform a binary classification on detected-communities. Our results of over a year-long study show that (1) the prevalence of click farming is different across CGSNs; (2) most click farmers are lowly-rated; (3) click-farming communities have relatively tight relations between users; (4) more highly-ranked stores have a greater portion of fake reviews.
Cluster-Based Content Download and Forwarding Scheme for Highway VANETs
Mingsi Zhang, Changle Li*, Tao Guo, Yuchuan Fu
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 110-120
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The recent advances in wireless communication technology enable high-speed vehicles to download data from roadside units (RSUs). However, the data download volume of individual vehicle is rather restricted due to high mobility and limited transmission range of vehicles, bringing users poor performance. To address this issue, we exploit the combination of both clustering and carry-and-forward schemes in this paper. Our scheme coordinates the cooperation of multiple infrastructures, cluster formation in the same direction and data forwarding of reverse vehicles to facilitate the target vehicle to download large-size content in dark areas. The process of data dissemination and achievable data download volume are then derived and analyzed theoretically. Finally, we conduct extensive simulations to verify the performance of the proposed scheme. Results show significant benefits of the proposed scheme in terms of increasing data download volume and throughput.
Vortex Channel Modelling for the Radio Vortex System
Qibiao Zhu, Tao Jiang
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 121-129
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In this paper, a free-space vortex channel model of the radio vortex system is proposed to describe the propagation characteristics of vortex signals over the vortex channel. The key idea is to combine the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes in the optical field with the free-space propagation model in the radio field. The proposed free-space vortex channel model is derived from the electric field expression of the LG modes and the free-space channel transfer function of the free-space propagation model theoretically. Simulation results verify that the proposed model could reflect the vortex channel characteristics better than the currently used free-space propagation model.
New Precoded Spatial-Multiplexing for an Erasure Event in Single Frequency Networks
Hojun Kim, Seyoung Kim, Yulong Shang, Seunghyeon Kim, Taejin Jung
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 130-140
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In this paper, we propose a new spatial-multiplexing (SM) scheme employing an orthogonal precoder over Rayleigh-fading channels for an erasure event in single frequency networks (SFN). To optimize the precoder, the average bit error rate (BER) is evaluated and minimized through a mathematical analysis. Compared to an ordinary SM, the proposed scheme guarantees identical BER performance under non-erasure fading channels and achieves a greatly improved performance under erasure fading channels, especially for a higher erasure-ratio and SNR values. This improvement is mainly due to the increase in the diversity gain incurred by the optimized precoder over the erasure event. We also compare the performance of the proposed SM to that of the conventional constellation-rotation (CR) scheme applied to the single antenna SFN systems. The results of a computer simulation show that the performance of the new scheme is more effective than that of a conventional CR across all simulation cases.
Microphone Array Speech Enhancement based on Tensor Filtering Methods
Jing Wang, Xiang Xie, Jingming Kuang
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 141-152
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This paper proposes a novel microphone array speech denoising scheme based on tensor filtering methods including truncated HOSVD (High-Order Singular Value Decomposition), low rank tensor approximation and multi-mode Wiener filtering. Microphone array speech signal is represented in three-order tensor space with channel, time, and spectrum modes and then tensor filtering model can be designed to process the multiway array data. As to the first method, noise can be reduced through the truncated HOSVD which is a simple scheme in tensor processing. It is more accurate to find the lower-rank approximation of the three-order tensor with Tucker model. Then MDL (Minimum Description Length) criterion is used to estimate the optimal tensor rank in the second method. Further, multi-mode Wiener filtering approach upon tensor analysis can be considered as the spanning of one-mode wiener filtering. How to take advantages of tensor model to obtain a set of filters is the heart of the novel scheme. The performances of the proposed three approaches are evaluated with objective indexes and listening quality test. The experimental results indicate that the proposed tenor filtering methods have potential ability of retrieving the target signal from noisy microphone array signal and the multi-mode Wiener filtering method provides the best denoising results among the three ones.
Uplink Grant-Free Pattern Division Multiple Access (GF-PDMA) for 5G Radio Access
Wanwei Tang, Shaoli Kang, Bin Ren, Xinwei Yue
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 153-163
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Massive machine type communication (mMTC) is one of the key application scenarios for the fifth generation mobile communication (5G). Grant-free (GF) transmission can reduce the high signaling overhead in mMTC. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NMA) can support more users for mMTC than orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). Applying GF transmission in NMA system becomes an active topic recently. The in-depth study on applying GF transmission in pattern division multiple access (PDMA), a competitive candidate scheme of NMA, is investigated in this paper. The definition, latency and allocation of resource and transmission mechanism for GF-PDMA are discussed in detail. The link-level and system-level evaluations are provided to verify the analysis. The analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed GF-PDMA has lower latency than grant based PDMA (GB-PDMA), possesses strong scalability to confront collision and provides almost 2.15 times gain over GF-OFDMA in terms of supporting the number of active users in the system.
Identity-based Encryption with Keyword Search from Lattice Assumption
Xiaojun Zhang, Chunxiang Xu, Liming Mu, Jie Zhao
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 164-178
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Public key encryption scheme with keyword search (PEKS) enables us to search the encrypted data in a cloud server with a keyword, and no one can obtain any information about the encrypted data without the trapdoor corresponding to the keyword. The PEKS is useful to keep the management of large data storages secure such as those in a cloud. In this paper, to protect against quantum computer attacks, we present a lattice-based identity-based encryption scheme with keyword search. We have proved that our scheme can achieve ciphertext indistinguishability in the random oracle model, and our scheme can also achieve trapdoor security. In particular, our scheme can designate a unique tester to test and return the search results, therefore it does not need a secure channel. To the best of our knowledge, our scheme is the first identity-based encryption scheme with keyword search from lattice assumption.
Multi-Bit Sliding Stack Decoding Algorithm for OVXDM
Peng Lin, Yafeng Wang, Daoben Li
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 179-191
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Overlapped x domain multiplexing (OVXDM) is a promising encoding technique to obtain high spectral efficiency by utilizing inter-symbol interference (ISI) intelligently. However, the computational complexity of maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) increases exponentially with the growth of spectral efficiency in OVXDM, which is unbearable for practical implementations. In this paper, based on a novel path metric associating adjacent symbols, we propose a multi-bit sliding stack decoding (Multi-Bit SSD) algorithm to achieve multiple-bit decoding simultaneously in OVXDM. Theoretical analysis is provided for the algorithm, which indicates the relationship between the performance and parameters including multiplexing waveform, overlapping fold and sliding window size. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve better decoding performance and higher spectral efficiency than conventional fast decoding algorithms.
Smart Prediction for Seamless Mobility in F-HMIPv6 Based on Location Based Services
Rawya Rizk, Heba Nashaat
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 192-209
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This paper proposed a new scheme for smooth handoff over F-HMIPv6 networks based on Location Based Services (LBS). It uses the available information about mobile node (MN) such as user mobility patterns and MN’s velocity to reduce handoff latency. In the proposed scheme, the movement pattern of users plays an important role in the performance analysis. The proposed scheme develops LBS that records a number of mobility patterns based on user daily behavior, and exploits these information to reduce the handoff latency. The proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with F-HMIPv6 protocol. The results show that it improves the performance in terms of handoff latency, packet delivery cost, and location update cost. Specifically, the proposed scheme achieves the tradeoff between realizing a smooth handoff and minimizing the cost that is the demand for all customers of mobile services.
Modeling and Evaluating Telecommunication Industry’s “Internet-and-Digitized” Development
Xuenan Ju, Xiaowen Li, Baowen Sun
China Communications, 2018, 15(4): 210-220
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This paper systematically investigates telecommunication industry’s “internet-and-digitization” development situation. Based on existing literature and the unique characteristics of telecommunication industry, we build a comprehensive model to depict the level of “internet-and-digitization” development by five key dimensions: market size, informational investment, technological innovation, internet application, and internet penetration. We propose that this five-dimensional model can capture the key components of “internet-and-digitization” development in this digital era. By using Beijing’s telecommunication data, we empirically test our conceptual model and explore the current development level of telecommunication industry’s “internet-and-digitization” progress. Results show that Beijing’s telecommunication industry has great potential in expanding online market size as well as activating technological innovation. We also suggest that bigger telecommunication firms should pay more attention to “internet-and-digitization” development, especially on internet application and penetration dimensions. Finally, theoretical contributions, managerial implications and future research directions are also discussed.
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