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Antenna Selection and Power Allocation Design for 5G Massive MIMO Uplink Networks
Hongyuan Gao, Yumeng Su, Shibo Zhang, Ming Diao
Massive MIMO is one of the key technologies in future 5G communications which can satisfy the requirement of high speed and large capacity. This paper considers ante...
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  2019, 16(4)  
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Antenna Selection and Power Allocation Design for 5G Massive MIMO Uplink Networks Hot!
Hongyuan Gao, Yumeng Su, Shibo Zhang, Ming Diao
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 1-15
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Massive MIMO is one of the key technologies in future 5G communications which can satisfy the requirement of high speed and large capacity. This paper considers antenna selection and power allocation design to promote energy conservation then provide good quality of service (QoS) for the whole massive MIMO uplink network. Unlike previous related works, hardware impairment, transmission efficiency, and energy consumption at the circuit and antennas are involved in massive MIMO networks. In order to ensure the QoS, we consider the minimum rate constraint for each user and the system, which increases the complexity of power allocation problem for maximizing energy and spectral efficiency in massive MIMO system. To this end, a quantum-inspired social emotional optimization (QSEO) algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal power control strategy in massive MIMO uplink networks. Simulation results assess the great advantages of QSEO which previous strategies do not have.
Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency in Underlay Device-to-Device Communications Enabled Cellular Networks
Yan Cai, Yiyang Ni, Jun Zhang, Su Zhao, Hongbo Zhu
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 16-34
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In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency and spectrum efficiency, including one-hop device-to-device (D2D) communications mode and two-way amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying D2D communications mode in underlay D2D communications enabled cellular networks. An analysis of average energy efficiency and spectrum efficiency are developed and closed-form expressions are obtained for two types of D2D communications modes under the effect of Rayleigh fading channel, path loss, and co-channel interference. Analytical results are validated through numerical simulations. Based on the simulation, the effects of the interference, the distance between D2D pair and the position of relay node on the energy efficiency and spectrum efficiency of D2D communications are investigated. The optimal D2D transmission powers of these two modes to maximize the energy efficiency are also investigated.
Congestion Relief in Downlink OFDMA Cellular System Using Inter-Cell Relay
Weifeng Lu, Mingqi Zhu, Jia Xu, Siguang Chen, Lijun Yang, Jian Xu
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 35-46
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This paper proposes the concept of inter-cell relay for downlink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) cellular systems, which uses multi-hop to relay calls from overloaded cells to light-load neighboring cells. It is shown that when using inter-cell relay, the number of calls in the congestion cell can be significantly increased. The congestion cell is divided into two parts. One is called non-relay area (NRA), in which a call directly communicates with the base station (BS) of a congested cell. The other is called relay area (RA), in which a call communicates with the BS of a neighboring cell through a relay station (RS). The two parts have different user-call densities. By adjusting the densities of two parts, we will maximize the number of supported calls inside a congested cell. The results show the benefits gained from inter-cell relay in congestion relief, which can reduce cell congestion by fully utilizing the available resources in the neighboring cells.
Dynamic Matching-Based Spectrum Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks
Yu Gu, Qingqi Pei, Hongning Li
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 47-58
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Cognitive Radio Network provides an opportunity to reduce the spectrum resource crisis by allowing secondary users to access the idle spectrum allocated to primary users. The precondition of spectrum sharing is to obtain the Spectrum Availability Information (SAI). Energy detection is a typical technology to get SAI. With the mobility of primary users, the energy received by secondary users varies greatly with the distance from the target primary users. Most of the existing energy detection algorithms that use fixed thresholds are not suitable. We propose a Dynamic Matching-Based Spectrum Detection (DMBSD) scheme which can detect sensing data, reduce the impact of malicious data and make final sensing results more accurate with dynamic threshold setting and data matching. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can detect tempered data, and increase detection probability by decreasing false alarm probability and missed detection probability.
SDNMS: A Software Defined Network Measurement System for NFV Networks
Tianqi Zhang, Ming Chen, Xianglin Wei, Bing Chen, Chao Hu
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 59-74
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As a promising technology to completely transform how we architect, deploy, operate and manage various networks, software-based Network Function Virtualization (NFV) enables hardware-independent, flexible, fast and efficient network service provision. With the increasing popularity of NFV paradigm, the Internet has also transformed to be a hybrid environment where NFV-based network entities coexist with traditional network devices. To facilitate our understanding, design, evaluate and manage of such novel network environment, there is a great need for a new NFV-compatible network measurement system which is still in absent so far. To bridge this gap, a system, named Software Defined Network Measurement System (SDNMS), is presented in this paper. Firstly, the architecture of SDNMS is proposed. In this architecture, a formal method to describe the working mode of the network measurement is defined. This method can also be utilized to generate a network measurement middle box (NMMB) in a specific location of the NFV network according to the customized description file, and to flexibly deploy the network measurement function. Secondly, the technology of virtual network measurement function (VNMF) combined with LXC is studied to form NMMB function. Thirdly, a control method is presented to control the start, stop, and update NMMB to form a specific network measurement system function. Finally, a prototype of SDNMS with network monitoring function to monitor network performance anomalies and locate faults is introduced. Experimental results have shown that SDNMS architecture and related technologies are feasible and effective to deploy and control network measurement functions in NFV networks. We hope SDNMS could provide a new method for practitioners to conduct network management and research at the age of NFV.
Interference Cancellation in Device-to-Device Communications underlying MU-MIMO Cellular Networks
Yiyang Ni, Yuxi Wang, Hongbo Zhu
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 75-88
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This paper investigates the device-to-device (D2D) communication underlaying multi-user multi-input multi-output (MU-MIMO) cellular networks. It is assumed that D2D users reuse the downlink time-frequency resources of cellular links, and the base station (BS) is assumed to be equipped with multiple antennas. We investigate the ergodic achievable sum rate of the system when the interference cancellation (IC) precoding strategy is employed at the BS. The distributions of the received signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for each link are firstly analyzed, and an exact ergodic achievable sum rate of the whole system with closed-form expressions is then derived. Furthermore, we present novel upper and lower bounds with simpler expressions, which are later verified to be fairly close to the Monte-Carlo simulations. All the expressions we presented are suitable for arbitrary network topology and arbitrary number of antennas at BS. Based on the derived bounds, the influence of the antennas at BS on system performance is then analyzed. We reveal that the system performance increases along with the number of antennas at BS in a logarithmic way. The accuracy of our analytical results is validated via comparisons with Monte-Carlo simulations.
A Novel Objective Quality Assessment Method for Video Conferencing Coding
Zhenyu Guan, Hanzheng Lv, Yuan Ma, Jingze Zhang
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 89-104
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Most recently, due to the demand of immersive communication, region-of-interest-based (ROI) high efficiency video coding (HEVC) approaches in conferencing scenarios have become increasingly important. However, there exists no objective metric, specially developed for efficiently evaluating the perceived visual quality of video conferencing coding. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel objective quality assessment method, namely Gaussian mixture model based peak signal-to-noise ratio (GMM-PSNR), for the perceptual video conferencing coding. First, eye tracking experiments, together with a real-time technique of face and facial feature extraction, are introduced. In the experiments, importance of background, face, and facial feature regions is identified, and it is then quantified based on eye fixation points over test videos. Next, assuming that the distribution of the eye fixation points obeys Gaussian mixture model, we utilize expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to generate an importance weight map for each frame of video conferencing coding, in light of a new term eye fixation points/pixel (efp/p). According to the generated weight map, GMM-PSNR is developed for quality assessment by assigning different weights to the distortion of each pixel in the video frame. Finally, we utilize some experiments to investigate the correlation of the proposed GMM-PSNR and other conventional objective metrics with subjective quality metrics. The experimental results show the effectiveness of GMM-PSNR.
A PSO Based Multi-Domain Virtual Network Embedding Approach
Yongjing Ni, Guoyan Huang, Sheng Wu, Chenxi Li, Peiying Zhang, Haipeng Yao
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 105-119
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This paper proposed a multi-domain virtual network embedding algorithm based on multi-controller SDN architecture. The local controller first selects candidate substrate nodes for each virtual node in the domain. Then the global controller abstracts substrate network topology based on the candidate nodes and boundary nodes of each domain, and applies Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm on it to divide virtual network requests. Each local controller then embeds the virtual nodes of the divided single-domain virtual network requests in the domain, and cooperates with other local controllers to embed the inter-domain virtual links. Simulation experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has good performance in reducing embedding cost with good stability and scalability.
Maximum Inner Product Method for Extracting the Path-Loss Parameters in Primary Transformer Substations
Qiang Li, Hongxin Zhang, Tianyi Zheng, Xueli Wang, Yinghua Lv
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 120-129
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In order to deploy short-range wireless communication devices in the primary transformer substation, a Maximum Inner Product (MIP) Method is proposed to extract the path-loss parameters in 110kV and 220kV primary transformer substations. The maximum inner product of the testing data is calculated to find out the loss index n and the standard deviation σ, and then the path-loss models can be set up. By comparing the MIP with Minimum Mean Square estimation (MMSE) and Cumulative Sum (CUSUM), MIP can match the measured values best. In order to apply the MIP path-loss model, under the initial signal to noise ratio (SNR) at 5 dB and 10 dB, a ZigBee simulation system is constructed to validate the situation that bit error rate (BER) varies with distance. And the ZigBee devices with 5 units are tested in a 220kV primary transformer substation. The result of the test proves that the path-loss model is accurate.
Quantized Hybrid Precoding Design for Millimeter-Wave Large-Scale MIMO Systems
Zelin Lu, Yunliang Zhang, Jiayi Zhang
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 130-138
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Millimeter wave (mmWave) and large-scale multiple input multiple output (MIMO) are two emerging technologies in fifth-generation wireless communication systems. The power consumption and hardware cost of radio frequency (RF) chains increase exponentially with the bit resolution of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs). One promising solution is to employ few RF chains with low-bit ADCs and DACs. In this paper, we consider mmWave large-scale MIMO systems with low bits DACs and ADCs. Leveraging on the Bussgang theorem and the additive quantization noise model (AQNM), a closed-form expression of the achievable rate is derived to show the effect of the ADCs՚ and DACs՚ resolution. Moreover, an orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) based hybrid precoding algorithm is proposed to increase the achievable rate. Our results show that the impact of DACs is more pronounced than the impact of ADCs. Furthermore, 5-bit ADCs and DACs are sufficient at the transceiver to operate without a significant performance loss.
High Secure Sequence Design in Frequency Hopping Communications
Rui Chen, Zan Li, Jia Shi, Lei Guan, Jiankang Zhang
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 139-150
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Frequency-hopping (FH) technique is widely used in high-secure communications by exploiting its capabilities of mitigating interference and confidentiality. However, electronic attacks in wireless systems become more and more rigorous, which poses huge challenges to the use of the number theory based and chaos theory assisted sequences. The structure of the FH sequence directly affects the performance of FH communication systems. In this paper, the novel FH sequence generation scheme is proposed with the aid of the so-called Government Standard (GOST) algorithm, which achieves a promising balance between efficiency and security. Moreover, the security performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed, which reveals that it is more resistant to impossible differential attacks than the widely-used Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm. The numerical results show that the FH sequences generated by the GOST algorithm significantly outperform the ones generated by the DES algorithm and chaotic theory in terms of the randomness and complexity.
An Effective and Scalable VM Migration Strategy to Mitigate Cross-VM Side-Channel Attacks in Cloud
Chao Yang*, Yunfei Guo, Hongchao Hu, Wenyan Liu, Yawen Wang
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 151-171
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Co-residency of virtual machines (VMs) of different tenants on the same physical platform would possibly lead to cross-VM side-channel attacks in the cloud. While most of current countermeasures fail for real or immediate deployment due to their requirement for modification of virtualization structure, we adopt dynamic migration, an inherent mechanism of the cloud platform, as a general defense against this kind of threats. To this end, we first set up a unified practical information leakage model which shows the factors affecting side channels and describes the way they influence the damage due to side-channel attacks. Since migration is adopted to limit the time duration of co-residency, we envision this defense as an optimization problem by setting up an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) to calculate optimal migration strategy, which is intractable due to high computational complexity. Therefore, we approximate the ILP with a baseline genetic algorithm, which is further improved for its optimality and scalability. Experimental results show that our migration-based defense can not only provide excellent security guarantees and affordable performance cost in both theoretical simulation and practical cloud environment, but also achieve better optimality and scalability than previous countermeasures.
A PCA-Based Internet Delay Space Dividing Algorithm
Zhanfeng Wang, Guang Cheng, Huaping Cao, Ming Chen, Chao Hu, Li Han3
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 172-185
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It’s a hot issue to improve the accuracy of network coordinate systems (NCS). By analyzing the error source of NCSes, it’s emphasized that guaranteeing the low dimensionality of embedding datasets is the principle on the designing of NCSes. Based on this observation, a PCA based Internet delay space dividing algorithm (IDSD-PCA) is proposed. Beginning at choosing an optimized sub dataset randomly, IDSD-PCA partitions the Internet delay dataset into several sub datasets with low dimensionality by iterations. After the partition, the whole delay dataset and sub datasets are embedded into a hierarchical NCS. The experimental results show that with this framework both the metric space based models and the non-metric space based models can predict the end-to-end delays more accurately.
Tensor Completion for Recovering Multichannel Audio Signal with Missing Data
Lidong Yang, Min Liu, Jing Wang, Xiang Xie, Jingming Kuang
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 186-195
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The quality of a multichannel audio signal may be reduced by missing data, which must be recovered before use. The data sets of multichannel audio can be quite large and have more than two axes of variation, such as channel, frame, and feature. To recover missing audio data, we propose a low-rank tensor completion method that is a high-order generalization of matrix completion. First, a multichannel audio signal with missing data is modeled by a three-order tensor. Next, tensor completion is formulated as a convex optimization problem by defining the trace norm of the tensor, and then an augmented Lagrange multiplier method is used for solving the constrained optimization problem. Finally, the missing data is replaced by alternating iteration with a tensor computation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on data of a 5.1-channel audio signal. The results show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, subjective listening tests with MUSHRA (Multiple Stimuli with Hidden Reference and Anchor) indicate that better audio effects were obtained by tensor completion.
Bistable Stochastic Resonance Enhanced 4-ary PAM Signal Detection under Low SNR
Linlin Liang, Nina Zhang, Haiyan Huang, Zan Li
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 196-207
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To boost the performance of 4-ary pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bistable stochastic resonance (BSR) system is introduced into digital communications system and get a reliable signal detection scheme. In this paper, we first analyse BSR system for different amplitudes of 4-ary PAM signals. The steady-state of the bistable system will be statistically distinct, and the feasibility of the proposed detection scheme is confirmed. On this basis, we present a detailed study on steady-state transitions of the BSR system, and an explicit expression of the bistable system parameters is derived. By setting the bistable system parameters, bistable system, 4-ary PAM signal, and noise reach the resonance state, and the BSR-based detection scheme is implemented. Moreover, we derive an analytical expression to calculate the symbol error rate (SER) of 4-ary PAM signals with the BSR-based detection under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Finally, the simulation results validate that BSR-based detection scheme can improve the detection performance while efficiently reducing the symbol error rate.
A Fuzzy Decision Based WSN Localization Algorithm for Wise Healthcare
Jiangyu Yan, Ran Qiao*, Liangrui Tang, Chenxi Zheng, Bing Fan
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 208-218
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Wise healthcare is a typical application of wireless sensor network (WSN), which uses sensors to monitor the physiological state of nursing targets and locate their position in case of an emergency situation. The location of targets need to be determined and reported to the control center,and this leads to the localization problem. While localization in healthcare field demands high accuracy and regional adaptability, the information processing mechanism of human thinking has been introduced,which includes knowledge accumulation, knowledge fusion and knowledge expansion. Furthermore, a fuzzy decision based localization approach is proposed. Received signal strength (RSS) at references points are obtained and processed as position relationship indicators, using fuzzy set theory in the knowledge accumulation stage; after that, optimize degree of membership corresponding to each anchor nodes in different environments during knowledge fusion; the matching degree of reference points is further calculated and sorted in decision-making, and the coordinates of several points with the highest matching degree are utilized to estimate the location of unknown nodes while knowledge expansion. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm get better accuracy performance compared to several traditional algorithms under different typical occasions.
UP-TreeRec: Building Dynamic User Profiles Tree for News Recommendation
Ming He, Xiaofei Wu, Jiuling Zhang, Ruihai Dong
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 219-233
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Online news recommendation systems aim to address the information explosion of news and make personalized recommendations for users. The key problem of personalized news recommendation is to model users’ interests and track their changes. A common way to deal with the user modeling problem is to build user profiles from observed behavior. However, the majority of existing methods make static representations of user profiles and little research has focused on effective user modeling that could dynamically capture user interests in news topics. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose UP-TreeRec, a news recommendation framework based on a user profile tree (UP-Tree), which is a novel framework combining content-based and collaborative filtering techniques. First, by exploiting a novel topic model namely UI-LDA, we obtain the representation vectors for news content in a topic space as the fundamental bridge to associate user interests with news topics. Next, we design a decision tree with a dynamically changeable structure to construct a user interest profile from the user’s feedback. Furthermore, we present a clustering-based multidimensional similarity computation method to select the nearest neighbor of the UP-Tree efficiently. We also provide a Map-Reduce framework-based implementation that enables scaling our solution to real-world news recommendation problems. We conducted several experiments compared to the state-of-the-art approaches on real-world datasets and the experimental results demonstrate that our approach significantly improves accuracy and effectiveness in news recommendation.
A Bandwidth-Link Resources Cooperative Allocation Strategy of Data Communication in Intelligent Transportation Systems
Xiaoming Jiang, Kangfei Li, Haobin Jiang, Na Zhu, Xin Tong
China Communications, 2019, 16(4): 234-249
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The bandwidth resources allocation strategies of the existing Internet of Vehicles (IoV) are mainly base on the communication architecture of the traditional 802.11x in the wireless local area network (WLAN). The traditional communication architecture of IoV will easily cause significant delay and low Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) for disseminating critical security beacons under the condition of high-speed movement, distance-varying communication, and mixed traffic. This paper proposes a novel bandwidth-link resources cooperative allocation strategy to achieve better communication performance under the road conditions of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Firstly, in traffic scenarios, based on the characteristic to predict the relative position of the mobile transceivers, a strategy is developed to cooperate on the mobile cellular network and the Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC). Secondly, by adopting the general network simulator NS3, the dedicated mobile channel models that are suitable for the data interaction of ITS, is applied to confirm the feasibility and reliability of the strategy. Finally, by the simulation, comparison, and analysis of some critical performance parameters, we conclude that the novel strategy does not only reduce the system delay but also improve the other communication performance indicators, such as the PDR and communication capacity.
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